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Application of Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) as a Tar Sampling Method
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6326-4084
2013 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 27, no 7, 3853-3860 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the result of an investigation of the potential use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) as a tar sampling method. The SPME stationary phase used was 50 mu m of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated on a fused silica fiber. Tar model compounds normally present in a producer gas from gasifiers, benzene, toluene, indane, indene, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene, were used in the investigation. The adsorbed compounds were analyzed by injection into gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC- FID). The amount of adsorbed tar on the SPME fiber determined the detection and quantification limits for the method. The results showed that adsorption of tar model compounds on the SPME fiber increased with decreasing polarity. The adsorption of compounds increased with a decreasing temperature, enabling a possibility to tune the sensitivity of the method by changing the sampling temperature. Conclusively, SPME has a very high potential as a tar sampling method and, in combination with GC- FID trace analysis of tar, is a feasible application.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 27, no 7, 3853-3860 p.
Keyword [en]
Adsorption, Anthracene, Gas chromatography, Gas generators, Naphthalene, Trace analysis
National Category
Energy Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-126887DOI: 10.1021/ef400694dISI: 000322150200028ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84880525928OAI: diva2:642659
Swedish Energy Agency

QC 20130822

Available from: 2013-08-22 Created: 2013-08-22 Last updated: 2013-10-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Sampling and Analysis of Tars by Means of Photo Ionization Detection and Solid Phase Micro Extraction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sampling and Analysis of Tars by Means of Photo Ionization Detection and Solid Phase Micro Extraction
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Gasification of biomass will likely play an important role in the production of energy and chemicals in a future sustainable society. However, during gasification impurities, such as tars, will be formed. Tars may cause fouling and blockages of equipment downstream the gasifier. It is therefore important to minimize the formation of tars, alternatively to remove the formed tars. These processes need to be monitored, which makes it necessary to develop tar analysis methods suitable for this task.

This work describes the development of two tar analysis methods, an on-line method based on a photoionization detector (PID) and an off-line method based on solid phase microextraction (SPME). Both methods were successfully validated against the established solid phase adsorption (SPA) method.

The method based on PID was shown to have a very fast response time. Furthermore, the PID method is selective towards tar, but only limited information will be obtained regarding the composition of the tar compounds. The PID method is suitable for applications where it is important to detect fast changes of the tar concentration, i.e. process monitoring.

The SPME method was shown to be a very sensitive method for qualitative and quantitative tar analysis. The sampling temperature was shown to be crucial for obtaining analysis results with the wanted detection limit. The SPME method is suitable for applications where extremely low detection and quantification limits are needed, i.e. for syngas production.


Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. viii, 77 p.
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2013:39
National Category
Engineering and Technology
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-131115 (URN)978-91-7501-861-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-10-25, E3, Lindstedtsvägen 3, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)

QC 20131009

Available from: 2013-10-09 Created: 2013-10-08 Last updated: 2013-10-09Bibliographically approved

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