Modelling of pH and inorganic aluminium after termination of liming in 3000 Swedish lakes
2013 (English)In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 35, 221-229 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Significant resources are spent on counteracting the effects of acidification, mainly by liming. Due to lower S and N deposition in Europe and North America, authorities are changing directives and strategies for remediation and reducing liming. However, as the acid-base buffer capacity differs in different water bodies, the desirable reduction of the lime dose is variable. In this study, a geochemical model is used to predict pH and inorganic monomeric Al (Ali) when liming is reduced and finally terminated in the 3000 Swedish lakes currently treated with lime. To estimate Ca and Mg concentrations not affected by liming for use in the model, the Ca/Mg ratio in nearby unlimed reference lakes was used. For the modelling of pH and inorganic Al the Visual MINTEQ program including the Stockholm Humic Model recently calibrated for Swedish fresh water was used. The predictions were validated with modelling results from six monitored lakes, in which liming had been terminated. The use of geochemical modelling appeared to be a promising tool for the calculation of accurate lime requirements in acid waters. For simulations in which liming was completely terminated, the pH value decreased by, on average, 1 pH unit to pH 5.7, whereas Ali increased by 17 mu g L (1) to 32 mu g L (1). If liming was reduced by half, the pH would drop only 0.3 pH units and Ali would increase by 2 mu g L (1). Lakes in the south-western part of Sweden were predicted to reach a lower pH and higher Ali, which would be expected due to their greater historical S deposition. The results indicate that liming can be terminated in certain areas and in other areas be reduced without increases in the lake acidity.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013. Vol. 35, 221-229 p.
Buffer capacity, Geochemical modelling, Geochemical models, Lime requirements, Mg concentrations, N deposition, Stockholm humic models, Waterbodies
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-126873DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2013.04.014ISI: 000322065800022ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84880509578OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-126873DiVA: diva2:642759
FunderSwedish Environmental Protection Agency
QC 201308232013-08-232013-08-222015-03-24Bibliographically approved