Microstructure Evaluation and Wear-Resistant Properties of Ti-alloyed Hypereutectic High Chromium Cast Iron
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
High chromium cast iron (HCCI) is considered as one of the most useful wear resistance materials and their usage are widely spread in industry. The mechanical properties of HCCI mainly depend on type, size, number, morphology of hard carbides and the matrix structure (γ or α). The hypereutectic HCCI with large volume fractions of hard carbides is preferred to apply in wear applications. However, the coarser and larger primary M7C3 carbides will be precipitated during the solidification of the hypereutectic alloy and these will have a negative influence on the wear resistance.
In this thesis, the Ti-alloyed hypereutectic HCCI with a main composition of Fe-17mass%Cr-4mass%C is studied based on the experimental results and calculation results. The type, size distribution, composition and morphology of hard carbides and martensite units are discussed quantitatively. For a as-cast condition, a 11.2μm border size is suggested to classify the primary M7C3 carbides and eutectic M7C3 carbides. Thereafter, the change of the solidification structure and especially the refinement of carbides (M7C3 and TiC) size by changing the cooling rates and Ti addition is determined and discussed. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of hypereutectic HCCI related to the solidification structure are discussed.
Mechanical properties of HCCI can normally be improved by a heat treatment process. The size distribution and the volume fraction of carbides (M7C3 and TiC) as well as the matrix structure (martensite) were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in-situ observation by using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). Especially for the matrix structure and secondary M7C3 carbides, EBSD and CLSM are useful tools to classify the fcc (γ) and bcc (α) phases and to study the dynamic behavior of secondary M7C3 carbides. In conclusion, low holding temperatures close to the eutectic temperature and long holding times are the best heat treatment strategies in order to improve wear resistance and hardness of Ti-alloyed hypereutectic HCCI.
Finally, the maximum carbides size is estimated by using statistics of extreme values (SEV) method in order to complete the size distribution results. Meanwhile, the characteristic of different carbides types will be summarized and classified based on the shape factor.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , 76 p.
High Chromium Cast Iron, cooling rate, Ti addition, M7C3, TiC, carbides size distributions, volume fraction, heat treatment, microstructure, mechanical properties, wear resistance, statistics of extreme values (SEV), maximum carbides size.
Engineering and Technology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-128532ISBN: 978-91-7501-842-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-128532DiVA: diva2:647897
2013-09-27, B1, Brinellvägen 23, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Tiedje, Niels Skat, Associate Professor
Jönsson, Pär, ProfessorNakajima, Keiji, Professor
QC 201309132013-09-132013-09-122013-09-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers