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Arsenic Exposure Risk from Rice and Other Dietry Components in Rural Bengal
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. (KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group)
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the risk of arsenic (As) exposure from staple diet to the communities in rural Bengal, even when they have been supplied with As safe drinking water. The results indicate that average accumulation of As in rice grain increases with decrease of grain size [extra-long slender (ELS): 0.04 mg kg-1; long slender (LS): 0.10 mg kg-1; medium slender (MS): 0.16 mg kg-1 and short bold (SB): 0.33 mg kg-1], however people living in the rural villages mostly prefer brown colored SB type of rice because of its lower cost. Among the vegetables generally consumed in rural villages, the accumulation of As is highest in the leafy type of vegetables (0.21 mg kg-1), compared to non-leafy (0.07 mg kg-1) and root  vegetables (0.10 mg kg-1). Arsenic predominantly accumulates in rice (>90%) and vegetables (almost 100%) in inorganic species [As(III & V)]. The estimates of exposure via dietary and drinking water routes show that when people are consuming water with As concentration <10 μg L-1, the total daily intake of inorganic As (TDI-iAs) exceeds the previous provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) value of 2.1 μg day-1 kg-1 BW, recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) in 35% of the cases due to consumption of rice. Considerably high concentration of As in urine and saliva despite drinking of As safe water (<10 μg L-1) further supports that dietary intake of As, mainly through consumption of rice could be alternative pathway of As exposure among the population. When the level of As concentration in drinking water is above 10 μg L-1, the TDI-iAs exceeds the previous  PTDI for all the participants. These results imply that when rice consumption is a significant contributor to the TDI-iAs, supplying water with As concentration at current national drinking water standard for India and Bangladesh (50 μg L-1) would place many people above the safety threshold of PTDI. When As concentration in drinking water exceeds 50 μg L-1 As exposure through drinking water largely predominates over the exposure through dietary intake. It is found that the consumption of vegetables in rural Bengal does not pose  significant health threat to the population independently. It is also revealed that cooking of rice with high volume of As safe (<10 μg L-1) water can decrease both total and inorganic As content in cooked rice. However, the assessment of As exposure risk indicates that despite such lowering in As concentrations, still consumption of cooked rice is a significant pathway of As exposure to the population in rural Bengal. This study suggests that any effort to mitigate the As exposure of the villagers in Bengal must consider the risk of As exposure from rice consumption together with drinking water.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , xiv, 33 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1072
Keyword [en]
Rural Bengal; Arsenic; Rice and other dietary components; Total daily intake; Biomarkers; Risk assessment
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-128941ISBN: 978-91-7501-848-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-128941DiVA: diva2:648957
Public defence
2013-09-25, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
EAECA-EURINDIA 2009-1665
Note

QC 20130919

Available from: 2013-09-19 Created: 2013-09-17 Last updated: 2013-09-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Consumption of Brown Rice: A Potential Pathway for Arsenic Exposure in Rural Bengal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Consumption of Brown Rice: A Potential Pathway for Arsenic Exposure in Rural Bengal
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2012 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 7, 4142-4148 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study assesses the arsenic (As) accumulation in different varieties of rice grain, that people in rural Bengal mostly prefer for daily consumption, to estimate the potential risk of dietary As exposure through rice intake. The rice samples have been classified according to their average length (L) and L to breadth (B) ratio into four categories, such as short-bold (SB), medium-slender (MS), long-slender (LS), and extra-long slender (ELS). The brown colored rice samples fall into the SB, MS, or LS categories; while all Indian Basmati (white colored) are classified as ELS. The study indicates that the average accumulation of As in rice grain increases with a decrease of grain size (ELS: 0.04; LS: 0.10; MS: 0.16; and SB: 0.33 mg kg(-1)), however people living in the rural villages mostly prefer brown colored SB type of rice because of its lower cost. For the participants consuming SB type of brown rice, the total daily intake of inorganic As (TDI-iAs) in 29% of the cases exceeds the previous WHO recommended provisional tolerable daily intake value (2.1 mu g day(-1) kg(-1) BW), and in more than 90% of cases, the As content in the drinking water equivalent to the inorganic As intake from rice consumption (C-W,C-eqv) exceeds the WHO drinking water guideline of 10 mu g L-1. This study further demonstrates that participants in age groups 18-30 and 51-65 yrs are the most vulnerable to the potential health threat of dietary As exposure compared to participants of age group 31-50 yrs, because of higher amounts of brown rice consumption patterns and lower BMI.

Keyword
Age groups, Arsenic exposure, Average length, Brown rice, Consumption patterns, Daily intake, Grain size, Lower cost, Potential health, Potential risks, Rice grains, Rice samples, Rural villages, Tolerable daily intake
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-95104 (URN)10.1021/es204298a (DOI)000302850400071 ()22352724 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84859367116 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 348-2006-6005
Note
QC 20120521Available from: 2012-05-21 Created: 2012-05-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Risk of arsenic exposure from drinking water and dietary components: Implications for risk management in rural Bengal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk of arsenic exposure from drinking water and dietary components: Implications for risk management in rural Bengal
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2013 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 2, 1120-1127 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the risk of arsenic (As) exposure to the communities in rural Bengal, even when they have been supplied with As safe drinking water. The estimates of exposure via dietary and drinking water routes show that, when people are consuming water with an As concentration of less than 10 μg L-1, the total daily intake of inorganic As (TDI-iAs) exceeds the previous provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) value of 2.1 μg day-1 kg-1 BW, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 35% of the cases due to consumption of rice. When the level of As concentration in drinking water is above 10 μg L-1, the TDI-iAs exceeds the previous PTDI for all the participants. These results imply that, when rice consumption is a significant contributor to the TDI-iAs, supplying water with an As concentration at the current national drinking water standard for India and Bangladesh would place many people above the safety threshold of PTDI. We also found that the consumption of vegetables in rural Bengal does not pose a significant health threat to the population independently. This study suggests that any effort to mitigate the As exposure of the villagers in Bengal must consider the risk of As exposure from rice consumption together with drinking water.

Keyword
Oryza-sativa l., west-bengal, cooked rice, paddy field, bangladesh, india, groundwater, contamination, speciation, irrigation
National Category
Water Engineering Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-118200 (URN)10.1021/es303522s (DOI)000313667400056 ()2-s2.0-84872585435 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation AgencySwedish Research Council, 348-2006-6005
Note

QC 20130213

Available from: 2013-02-13 Created: 2013-02-13 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Is Saliva a Potential Biomarker of Arsenic Exposure?: A Case-Control Study in West Bengal, India
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is Saliva a Potential Biomarker of Arsenic Exposure?: A Case-Control Study in West Bengal, India
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2013 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 7, 3326-3332 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Saliva is a biological fluid that has not been used extensively as a biomonitoring tool in epidemiological studies. This study presents the arsenic (As) concentrations in saliva and urine samples collected from populations of West Bengal, India who had been previously exposed to high As levels in their drinking water. We found a significant (p < 0.05) association between the Log transformed Daily Ingestion of As (mu g day(-1)) and the As concentration in saliva (r = 0.68). Additionally, As concentration of saliva and urine also had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.60, p < 0.05). Male participants, smokers, and cases of skin lesion were independently and significantly associated with an increase in salivary As. Thus our findings show that saliva is a useful biomarker of As exposure in the study population. The study also advocates that measurement of the forms of As in saliva may additionally provide insight into the internal dose and any individual differences in susceptibility to As exposure.

Keyword
Drinking-Water, Skin-Lesions, Affected Area, Human Nails, Population, Cadmium, Lead, Bangladesh, Speciation, Hair
National Category
Water Engineering Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122331 (URN)10.1021/es303756s (DOI)000317173100041 ()2-s2.0-84875775111 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20130521

Available from: 2013-05-21 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Variation of arsenic species in raw and cooked rice: Implications for human health in rural Bengal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variation of arsenic species in raw and cooked rice: Implications for human health in rural Bengal
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Water Engineering Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-129247 (URN)
Note

QS 2013

Available from: 2013-09-24 Created: 2013-09-24 Last updated: 2013-09-27Bibliographically approved

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