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Data Quality in Wide-Area Monitoring and Control Systems: PMU Data Latency, Completness, and Design of Wide-Area Damping Systems
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4386-3781
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The strain on modern electrical power system operation has led to an ever increasing utilization of new Information Communication Technology (ICT) systems to enhance the reliability and efficiency of grid operation. Among these proposals, Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU)-based Wide-Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) systems have been recognized as one of the enablers of “Smart Grid”, particularly at the transmission level, due to their capability to improve the real-time situational awareness of the grid. These systems differ from the conventional Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems in that they provide globally synchronized measurements at high resolutions. On the other hand, the WAMC systems also impose several stringent requirements on the underlying ICT systems, including performance, security, and availability, etc. As a result, the functionality of the WAMC applications is heavily, but not exclusively, dependent on the capabilities of the underlying ICT systems. This tight coupling makes it difficult to fully exploit the benefits of the synchrophasor technology without the proper design and configuration of ICT systems to support the WAMC applications. The strain on modern electrical power system operation has led to an ever increasing utilization of new Information Communication Technology (ICT) systems to enhance the reliability and efficiency of grid operation. Among these proposals, Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU)-based Wide-Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) systems have been recognized as one of the enablers of “Smart Grid”, particularly at the transmission level, due to their capability to improve the real-time situational awareness of the grid. These systems differ from the conventional Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems in that they provide globally synchronized measurements at high resolutions. On the other hand, the WAMC systems also impose several stringent requirements on the underlying ICT systems, including performance, security, and availability, etc. As a result, the functionality of the WAMC applications is heavily, but not exclusively, dependent on the capabilities of the underlying ICT systems. This tight coupling makes it difficult to fully exploit the benefits of the synchrophasor technology without the proper design and configuration of ICT systems to support the WAMC applications.

In response to the above challenges, this thesis addresses the dependence of WAMC applications on the underlying ICT systems. Specifically, two of the WAMC system data quality attributes, latency and completeness, are examined together with their effects on a typical WAMC application, PMU-based wide-area damping systems. The outcomes of this research include quantified results in the form of PMU communication delays and data frame losses, and probability distributions that can model the PMU communication delays. Moreover, design requirements are determined for the wide-area damping systems, and three different delay-robust designs for this WAMC application are validated based on the above results. Finally, a virtual PMU is developed to perform power system and communication network co-simulations.

The results reported by this thesis offer a prospect for better predictions of the performance of the supporting ICT systems in terms of PMU data latency and completeness. These results can be further used to design and optimize the WAMC applications and their underlying ICT systems in an integrated manner. This thesis also contributes a systematic approach to design the wide-area damping system considering the PMU data latency and completeness. Finally, the developed virtual PMU, as part of a co-simulation platform, provides a means to investigate the dependence of WAMC applications on the capabilities of the underlying ICT systems in a cost-efficient manner.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , xii, 47 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2013:038
Keyword [en]
Phasor Measurement Units, Wide-Area Monitoring and Control systems, latency, completeness, power system communication, simulation, empirical study
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-129078ISBN: 978-91-7501-886-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-129078DiVA: diva2:649889
Public defence
2013-11-08, Sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 11:17 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20131015

Available from: 2013-10-15 Created: 2013-09-19 Last updated: 2013-10-15Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Examination of data delay and packet loss for wide-area monitoring and control systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Examination of data delay and packet loss for wide-area monitoring and control systems
2012 (English)In: 2012 IEEE International Energy Conference and Exhibition, ENERGYCON 2012, IEEE , 2012, 927-934 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Timely and synchronized phasor data at high resolutions holds a great promise for more responsible and advanced power grid operations. It is expected that the combined effort of developing new application paradigms and the supporting Information and Communication Technology (ICT) will enable the evolutionary change for future transmission grid operation. This paper addresses the design of the supporting ICT system for Wide-Area Monitoring and Control applications considering system performance. The major contribution that distinguishes this paper from previous research efforts in the same area is that this study quantifies the end-to-end data delay and the received packet rate with considerations of different levels of data concentrations. The analysis performed in this paper is not merely limited to the performance issues caused by communication networks but also provides means to view and analyze the overall data delay of the entire supporting ICT system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Keyword
communication, delay, performance, Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC), received packet rate, Wide-Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) systems
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-101455 (URN)10.1109/EnergyCon.2012.6348284 (DOI)2-s2.0-84870786378 (Scopus ID)978-146731454-1 (ISBN)
Conference
2012 IEEE International Energy Conference and Exhibition, ENERGYCON 2012; Florence; 9 September 2012 through 12 September 2012
Note

QC 20130122

Available from: 2012-08-29 Created: 2012-08-29 Last updated: 2013-10-15Bibliographically approved
2. Design of wide-area damping systems based on the capabilities of the supporting Information Communication Technology infrastructure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of wide-area damping systems based on the capabilities of the supporting Information Communication Technology infrastructure
2014 (English)In: IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, ISSN 1751-8687, E-ISSN 1751-8695, Vol. 8, no 4, 640-650 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The dependence of the functionality of the wide-area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems on the capabilities of their underlying Information Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure indicates that the parameterisation of the WAMC application algorithm should be coordinated with the design of the supporting ICT system. This study presents a systematic approach to design wide-area damping systems considering phasor measurement unit (PMU) communication delays and data frame losses. The proposed design method is applied to calibrate a wide-area damping system based on generalised predictive control (GPC) for demonstration purposes. In addition, a framework to guide the parameterisation of the GPC- based wide-area damping system is also provided. This research offers a better perspective to predict the capabilities of the underlying ICT infrastructure in the WAMC systems. Moreover, the proposed design method can be generalised to design delay-robust damping systems with compensation limits. Finally, it also offers an opportunity to associate the parameterisation of the damping system with the capabilities of its supporting ICT infrastructure and the reliability of the intended damping control function.

Keyword
Phasor measurement unit, Wide-Area Monitoring and Control systems, power system communication, communication delays, data frame losses, generalized predictive control
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-129071 (URN)10.1049/iet-gtd.2013.0147 (DOI)000333641800007 ()2-s2.0-84897381995 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140602

Available from: 2013-09-19 Created: 2013-09-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. An Empirical Study of Synchrophasor Communication Delay in a Utility TCP/IP Network
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Empirical Study of Synchrophasor Communication Delay in a Utility TCP/IP Network
Show others...
2013 (English)In: International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems, ISSN 2194-5756, E-ISSN 1553-779X, Vol. 14, no 4, 341-250 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although there is a plethora of literature dealing with Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) communication delay, there has not been any effort to generalize empirical delay results by identifying the distributions with the best fit. The existing studies typically assume a distribution, or simply build on analogies to communication network routing delay. Specifically, this study provides insight into the characterization of the communication delay of both unprocessed PMU data and synchrophasors sorted by a Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC). The results suggest that a bi-modal distribution containing two normal distributions offers the best fit of the delay of the unprocessed data, whereas the delay profile of the sorted synchrophasors resembles a normal. Based on these results, the possibility of evaluating the reliability of a synchrophasor application with respect to a particular choice of PDC timeout is discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Walter de Gruyter, 2013
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-129074 (URN)10.1515/ijeeps-2013-0062 (DOI)2-s2.0-84881519181 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20131015

Available from: 2013-09-19 Created: 2013-09-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Design Requirements of Wide-Area Damping Systems-Using Empirical Data From a Utility IP Network
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design Requirements of Wide-Area Damping Systems-Using Empirical Data From a Utility IP Network
Show others...
2014 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, ISSN 1949-3053, E-ISSN 1949-3061, Vol. 5, no 2, 829-838 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) communication delays and data frame losses play a critical role in designing of wide-area damping systems driven by synchrophasor technology. While there are a plethora of simulation-based studies addressing this issue, empirical results from actual PMUs deployed in the field are rare. This paper provides important insights into the characterization of PMU communication delays and data frame losses based on empirical results collected from a utility IP network. Additionally, efforts are also made to elicit design requirements considering the above PMU data quality problems. Furthermore, three distinct delay-robust wide-area damping control schemes parameterized according to the proposed requirements are validated against the empirical delays and data frame losses. Time-domain simulation results suggest that the control schemes in question can effectively stabilize the power system in all of the tested scenarios.

Keyword
Communication delay, data frame loss, delay-robust control, inter-area oscillation, IP network, phasor measurement unit, wide-area monitoring and control system
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-129073 (URN)10.1109/TSG.2013.2290493 (DOI)000331985300030 ()2-s2.0-84897590564 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140414

Available from: 2013-09-19 Created: 2013-09-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
5. Test platform for synchrophasor based wide-area monitoring and control applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Test platform for synchrophasor based wide-area monitoring and control applications
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PES), 2013 IEEE, Vancouver: IEEE , 2013, 6672308- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Synchrophasor technology is considered as a main enabler for the envisioned Smart Grid at the transmission level. Despite some preliminary field test results reported from China Southern Grid, the majority of the synchrophasor applications are still in the engineering or advanced laboratory tests phases. One possible impedance of any real-life adoption of such applicationsis a lack of test platforms that are able to verify the proposed application paradigms in cost efficient manners, and also to demonstrate the interactions between the power system and the supporting ICT systems with sufficient details. In this paper, we report on the continuing research efforts targeting at developing a test platform for the development of the synchrophasor based applications. The platform incorporates a virtual Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU), a real-time simulator for power systems, a real-time simulator for communication networks, and an implementation of an open-source Phasor Data Concentrator. Specifically, this article focuses on the implementation and verification of the virtual PMU, and on the extension of its functionality to incorporate communication over UDP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Vancouver: IEEE, 2013
Series
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting PESGM, ISSN 1944-9925
Keyword
Cost-efficient, Laboratory test, Phasor data concentrators, Real-time simulator, Research efforts, Synchrophasors, Test platforms, Wide-area monitoring and controls
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-107199 (URN)10.1109/PESMG.2013.6672308 (DOI)000331874300215 ()2-s2.0-84893173930 (Scopus ID)978-147991303-9 (ISBN)
Conference
2013 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, PES 2013; Vancouver, BC; Canada; 21 July 2013 through 25 July 2013
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20131015

Available from: 2012-12-07 Created: 2012-12-07 Last updated: 2014-04-10Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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Output format
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