Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
In the Business of Building Green: The value of low-energy residential buildings from customer and developer perspectives
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8745-7390
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

An overarching aim of this research was to investigate the comprehensive value of green residential buildings as seen from two perspectives: that of the developer and that of the occupant (the customer). The dissertation consists of studies presented in seven papers.  The studies conducted to investigate the developer’s perspective focused on construction cost and potential profit (papers I and VII). The customer’s perspective was examined with three approaches: the impact that energy and environment have on the decision to purchase (or rent) an apartment (paper V), willingness to pay for a green apartment (paper VI) and finally, the occupants’ satisfaction with the dwelling and indoor environment (papers II, III and IV). 

The first paper examines whether increased investment costs are profitable, taking into account the reduction in operating costs. The investment viability is approached by comparing investment in conventional and green residential building, particularly passive houses, using real construction and post-occupancy conditions. The increased investment costs in energy-efficient building were also the focus of paper VII. In this paper, the aim was to study how technologies used in energy-efficient residential building construction affect the available saleable floor area and how this impacts on the profitability of the investment. Potential losses and gains of saleable floor area in energy-efficient buildings were assessed using a modelled building and analysed with the help of the average construction cost.

Papers II and IV present results from a study of occupants’ satisfaction and indoor environmental qualities. Both papers aim at comparing and analysing responses from occupants living in green and conventional buildings. Paper III focuses on a similar subject, but investigates occupants’ satisfaction among all adults living in multi-family buildings in Sweden, providing a national context for the results presented in papers II and IV. The results indicate that occupants are generally satisfied with their dwellings, but indoor environment proved to have a statistically significant effect on overall satisfaction.

The results in paper V indicate that energy and environmental factors have a minor impact on customers’ decision to purchase or rent an apartment. However, availability of information on building energy and environmental performance may have an effect on the likelihood of the buyers’ being interested in environmental qualities and consequently an impact on their decision. The study presented in paper VI shows that customer interest in energy and environmental factors has a significant impact on stated willingness to pay for green dwellings. The paper discusses the stated willingness to pay for low-energy buildings and buildings with an environmental certificate and attempts to assess the rationale of the stated willingness to pay for low-energy dwellings given potential energy savings.

Abstract [sv]

Fokus i detta forskningsprojekt har legat på att undersöka värdet av gröna bostäder ur ett brett perspektiv, dvs både genom att studera byggherrens och de boendes (kundens) synpunkter. I avhandlingen ingår sju uppsatser. Undersökningen av byggherrens synpunkter fokuserades på kostnader och potentiella inkomster (uppsats I och VII). Kundernas åsikter undersöktes på tre olika sätt: vilken effekt energi och miljö faktorer hade på beslut att köpa eller hyra en lägenhet (uppsats V), betalningsvilja för gröna bostäder (uppsats VI) och slutligen de boendes trivsel samt nöjdhet med inomhusmiljön (uppsats II,III och IV).

Den första uppsatsen syftar till att undersöka om ökningen av investeringskostnader vid byggande av gröna byggnader kan täckas av framtida energibesparingar och minskning av driftkostnad. Investeringens lönsamhet undersöktes genom att jämföra skillnader i byggkostnader mellan konventionella och gröna bostäder med skillnader i driftskostnader givet olika antaganden om energipriser och räntekrav. Huvudfokus i uppsats VII var också byggkostnader, men denna gång undersöktes hur nya tekniska lösningar påverkar boarea och lönsamhet av energieffektiva bostäder.  Genom att konstruera en modell av ett typhus analyserades potentiella ökningar i boarea med nya lösningar och hur detta påverkade lönsamheten i olika geografiska lägen (prisnivåer).

Uppsatserna II och IV presenterar resultat från boendeundersökningar. Båda uppsatserna syftar till att undersöka boendes trivsel och nöjdhet med inomhusmiljö samt att testa skillnaden i svar från boende i gröna och konventionella bostäder.  Uppsats III fokuserar också på inomhusmiljön, men analysen gjordes på svaren som samlades in under Boverkets projekt BETSI och resultaten är därmed representativa för alla vuxna som bor i flerfamiljshus i Sverige. Uppsats III ger därmed en national kontext för uppsatserna II och IV. Resultaten visar att boende trivs i sina bostäder, men inomhusmiljön har en statistiks signifikanta effekt på allmän nöjdhet faktor..

Resultaten i uppsats V tyder på att energi- och miljöaspekter spelar mindre roll i beslutet att köpa eller hyra en lägenhet. Den synliga informationens tillgänglighet angående byggnadens energi- och miljöprestanda, påverkar kundens intresse för dessa faktorer och därmed indirekt hushållets beslut. Resultaten i uppsats VI pekar på att kunderna, som är intresserade av byggnaders energi och miljö prestanda, är villiga att betala mer för gröna bostäder. I uppsats 6 diskuteras betalningsvilja för låg-energi byggnader och för byggnader med miljöcertifikat samt utvärderas om den angivna betalningsviljan är rationell beslut när man tar hänsyn till nuvärdet av framtida energibesparingar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , 28 p.
Series
Trita-FOB-PHD, 2013:1
Keyword [en]
sustainability, green buildings, residential buildings, low-energy, energy-efficiency, construction cost, profitability, occupant satisfaction, indoor environment quality (IEQ)
Keyword [sv]
hållbarhet, gröna byggnader, bostäder, låg-energi, energieffektivitet, byggkostnad, lönsamhet, boende nöjdhet, inomhusmiljö
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-131375ISBN: 978-91-85783-32-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-131375DiVA: diva2:655904
Public defence
2013-10-30, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20131014

Available from: 2013-10-14 Created: 2013-10-14 Last updated: 2015-03-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Low-energy versus conventional residential buildings: cost and profit
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-energy versus conventional residential buildings: cost and profit
2012 (English)In: Journal of European Real Estate Research, ISSN 1753-9269, E-ISSN 1753-9277, Vol. 5, no 3, 211-228 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the commercial aspect of “green” building construction and whether increased investment costs are profitable taking the reduction in operating costs into account. The investment viability is approached by comparing investment in conventional and “green” residential building, particularly passive houses, using real construction and post-occupancy conditions.

Design/methodology/approach – The key data were obtained by surveys and personal interviews. The first survey was directed to the companies which had experience of building low-energy housing and the second survey to housing companies that actively manage operation of low-energy houses.

Findings – Findings indicate that low-energy buildings are considered an interesting and sound business opportunity, and investment analysis indicates that low-energy houses (particularly passive houses) can be more attractive investments than conventional residential buildings. The long-term strategy of building low-energy buildings can give competitive advantages. The government initiative and the construction regulations are found to be necessary in eliminating the initial barrier to energy-efficient projects and achieving long-term environmental goals.

Originality/value – This paper provides insights into the investment decisions and contributes to the understanding of the construction, operation and profitability of energy-efficient residential buildings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012
Keyword
Low-energy buildings, Residential buildings, Cost, Profit, Sweden, Construction industry
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-106797 (URN)10.1108/17539261211282064 (DOI)2-s2.0-84865793516 (Scopus ID)
Note

part of a research project which is funded by SBUF,

The Development Fund of the Swedish Construction Industry

QC 20130502

Available from: 2012-12-04 Created: 2012-12-04 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Evaluation of low-energy and conventional residential buildings from occupants' perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of low-energy and conventional residential buildings from occupants' perspective
2012 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 58, 135-144 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this paper is to investigate building performance from the occupants' perspective and to compare how the residents in low-energy multi-family buildings and conventional buildings, respectively, perceive the comfort of, and satisfaction with, indoor elements. Additionally, the study explores differences in living-in, operation and management in low-energy and conventional residential buildings. The key data was obtained by surveys sent to occupants of carefully selected comparable buildings: three low-energy and three conventional residential buildings. Responses were compared and statistical difference was tested by the Mann-Whitney test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Findings indicate that both low-energy and conventional residential buildings have satisfied and less satisfied tenants. The occupants' satisfaction might decrease if thermal discomfort leads them to use supplementary heating; however, use of supplementary cooling does not have the same significance. Problems and concerns regarding ventilation and heating appeared in both types of buildings. Results suggest that, compared with conventional buildings, low-energy residential buildings required the same or less system adjustment, which suggests that, from a lifecycle perspective, the low-energy buildings are the better investment. Occupants' responses suggest that the "green" profile of the building has a positive impact on their environmental awareness and behaviour. This paper shows that occupants' feedback is an important part of comprehensive building performance assessment, indicating areas for improvement relevant for developers and housing managers. The presented results show that problems often identified as specific to low-energy buildings also appear in conventional buildings.

Keyword
Low-energy buildings, Occupants' satisfaction, Building performance, Perceived comfort
National Category
Economics and Business Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104356 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.07.002 (DOI)000309332800012 ()2-s2.0-84864361602 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20121109.

part of a research project which is funded by SBUF, The Development Fund of the Swedish Construction Industry

Available from: 2012-11-09 Created: 2012-11-01 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. Impact of perceived indoor environment quality on overall satisfaction in Swedish dwellings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of perceived indoor environment quality on overall satisfaction in Swedish dwellings
2013 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 63, 134-144 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this paper is to contribute to the discussion on how satisfaction with different aspects of indoor environment contributes to occupants' overall satisfaction. The analysis is based on survey responses collected during a unique project commissioned by The Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning. The results are representative of adults living in multi-family buildings in Sweden. The analysis shows that generally satisfaction with air quality has the highest impact on occupants' overall satisfaction. The occurrence of problems with indoor environment quality, particularly draught, dust and too low indoor temperature may affect occupants' overall satisfaction. However, it is demonstrated that the importance impact of perceived indoor environment quality on overall satisfaction is affected by individual and building characteristics.

Keyword
Residential Buildings, Postoccupancy Evaluation, Occupant Comfort, Office Buildings, Thermal Comfort, Behavior, Noise, Model
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122502 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2013.02.005 (DOI)000317639800014 ()2-s2.0-84875258684 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20130523

Available from: 2013-05-23 Created: 2013-05-23 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Parameters contributing to occupants’ satisfaction: Occupants’ insights into green and conventional residential buildings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parameters contributing to occupants’ satisfaction: Occupants’ insights into green and conventional residential buildings
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-131382 (URN)
Note

QS 2013

Available from: 2013-10-14 Created: 2013-10-14 Last updated: 2013-10-14Bibliographically approved
5. Impact of Energy and Environmental Factors in the Decision to Purchase or Rent an Apartment: The Case of Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of Energy and Environmental Factors in the Decision to Purchase or Rent an Apartment: The Case of Sweden
2013 (English)In: Journal of Sustainable Real Estate, ISSN 1949-8284, Vol. 5, no 1, 04- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, I examine the importance of environmental factors in the residential property market. The paper presents results from a quasi- experimental study and survey responses from 733 occupants of green and conventional buildings. The findings show that energy and environmental building performance factors have rather a minor impact on the purchasing or renting decision. The findings indicate that when discussing the impact of energy and environmental factors on a customer purchase decision, the availability of information should be considered.

Keyword
Energy, Environmental Factors, Green Building, Sweden
National Category
Civil Engineering Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-137671 (URN)
Projects
In the business of building green
Note

QC 20140827

Available from: 2013-12-16 Created: 2013-12-16 Last updated: 2014-08-27Bibliographically approved
6. Stated WTP and rational WTP: willingness to pay for green apartments in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stated WTP and rational WTP: willingness to pay for green apartments in Sweden
2014 (English)In: Sustainable Cities and Society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 13, 46-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Green buildings are expected to require lower operating costs, provide better indoor environment and have a lower impact on the environment than conventional buildings. Consequently, if renting or buying green property is more beneficial, a customer may be willing to pay extra for green apartment. The aim of this paper is to study stated and rational willingness to pay for green apartments in Sweden. A database consisting of responses from 477 occupants living in green and conventional multi-family buildings was used to investigate the existence of WTP and to test the difference in opinion between respondents living in green or conventional buildings and condominiums or rental apartments.

The responses indicate that people are prepared to pay more for very low-energy buildings but not as willing to pay for a building with an environmental certificate. It was found that interest in and the perceived importance of energy and environmental factors affect the stated WTP. The results indicate that a stated willingness to pay for low-energy buildings of 5% can be considered a rational investment decision.

Keyword
residential buildings; green buildings; willingness to pay (WTP); Sweden
National Category
Other Social Sciences Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Real Estate and Construction Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144865 (URN)10.1016/j.scs.2014.04.007 (DOI)2-s2.0-84904366482 (Scopus ID)
Note

Updated from Manuscript to article. QC 20150302

Available from: 2014-04-29 Created: 2014-04-29 Last updated: 2015-03-02Bibliographically approved
7. Energy-Efficient Technologies and the Building’s Saleable Floor Area: Bust or Boost for Highly-Efficient Green Construction?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy-Efficient Technologies and the Building’s Saleable Floor Area: Bust or Boost for Highly-Efficient Green Construction?
2013 (English)In: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 3, no 3, 570-587 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

When the external measurements of a building are fixed, an increase in external wall thickness caused by additional insulation, for example, will lead to loss of saleable floor area. This issue has to be taken into account in the evaluation of investment profitability. This paper examines how technologies used in energy-efficient residential building construction affect the available saleable floor area and how this impacts profitability of investment. Using a modeled building and an analysis of the average construction cost, we assessed losses and gains of saleable floor area in energy-efficient buildings. The analysis shows that the impact of potential losses or gains of saleable floor area should be taken into account when comparing investment alternatives: building energy-efficient green dwellings or building conventional ones. The results indicate that constructing energy-efficient buildings and introducing very energy-efficient technologies may be energy- and cost-effective even compared with conventional buildings. Employing new products in energy-efficient construction allows benefit to be drawn from lower energy consumption during the life cycle of the building, but also from the increase in saleable floor area.

Keyword
energy-efficiency, profitability, construction cost, green residential building, low energy building
National Category
Economics and Business Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-131381 (URN)10.3390/buildings3030570 (DOI)
Note

QC 20131014

Available from: 2013-10-14 Created: 2013-10-14 Last updated: 2013-10-14Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

kappa(643 kB)777 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 643 kBChecksum SHA-512
c8007e7e372a379dad3bfe78a17d18556f8458f9c6a67c7473c1abfe4a8452eb4e3512babd8fc6f910a136a3936bd6486ecfecfea881bcf707495679f171bce2
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Authority records BETA

Zalejska-Jonsson, Agnieszka

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Zalejska-Jonsson, Agnieszka
By organisation
Building and Real Estate Economics
Other Civil Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 777 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 1060 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf