Wood Nanocellulose Materials and Effects from Surface Modification of Nanoparticles
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Nanocellulose is an interesting natural material thatis gaining interest in the field of materials science, particularly nanocomposites. Depending on the disintegration route, nanocellulose can be isolated either in the form of long and flexible fibres (nanofibrillated cellulose, NFC), or stiff, rod-like crystals (cellulose nanocrystals, CNC). Nanocellulose can be utilized in nanocomposites either as a reinforcement element or as a network matrix due to its ability to form a strong network. In this thesis, nanocellulose based materials are prepared by evaporation of a liquid medium. The key step in this processing route is a good dispersion of the nanoparticles in the selected matrix. Therefore the importance of surface modification in order to ensure favourable nanocellulose dispersion is clarified in avariety of materials systems.
In Paper I, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based fibres prepared by electrospinning were reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose. Native NFC appeared to show a good compatibility with PMMA matrix in the electrospinning solution and resulting fibres. Furthermore, a new method for mechanical testing of mats with random fibre orientation as well as aligned fibres was developed.
In Paper II, commingled nanopaper structures with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared. Several surfactants were used to disperse hydrophobic CNTs in water. A nonylphenol phosphate ester (NPPE) was found to work well for both dispersing CNTs in water and providing compatibility with NFC through electrostatic repulsion between the phosphate ester groups of the surfactant and the carboxylate groups of NFC.
In Paper III, a new water based route for functionalization of cellulose nanocrystals was developed. In this approach, inspired by organo-modified layered silicates, quaternary ammonium salts were adsorbed. It was demonstrated that different functionalities (alkyl, phenyl, glycidylor diallyl) can be introduced onto the cellulose and the dispersibility in organic solvents was studied. Subsequently, in Paper IV, nanocomposites with poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc)were prepared. The effect of modification on the degree of dispersion of the CNC within the matrix was studied as well as the strong effects on the properties of the resulting nanocomposites.
In Paper V, taking advantage of the entangled NFC network and the possibility to tailor the pore size and surface chemistry, lubricant-infused slippery films and coatings based on NFC were prepared for the first time.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , 55 p.
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2013:40
Nanocellulose, nanoc omposite, dispersion, surface modification, surfa ctant, poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(vinyl acetate), carbon nanotubes, electrospinning, lubricant - infused surfaces
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-131469ISBN: 978-91-7501-866-9OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-131469DiVA: diva2:656547
2013-11-01, F3, Lindstetsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Berglund, Lars, Professor
QC 201310162013-10-162013-10-162013-10-16Bibliographically approved
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