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Efficacy of reactive mineral-based sorbents for phosphate, bacteria, nitrogen and TOC removal - Column experiment in recirculation batch mode
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
2013 (English)In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 47, no 14, 5165-5175 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two mineral-based materials (Polonite and Sorbulite) intended for filter wells in on-site wastewater treatment were compared in terms of removal of phosphate (PO4-P), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), total organic carbon (TOC) and faecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococci). Using an innovative, recirculating system, septic tank effluent was pumped at a hydraulic loading rate of 3000 L m(2) d(-1) into triplicate bench-scale columns of each material over a 90-day period. The results showed that Polonite performed better with respect to removal of PO4-P, retaining on average 80% compared with 75% in Sorbulite. This difference was attributed to higher CaO content in Polonite and its faster dissolution. Polonite also performed better in terms of removal of bacteria because of its higher pH value. The total average reduction in E. coli was 60% in Polonite and 45% in Sorbulite, while for Enterococci the corresponding value was 56% in Polonite and 34% in Sorbulite. Sorbulite removed TIN more effectively, with a removal rate of 23%, while Polonite removed 11% of TIN, as well as TOC. Organic matter (measured as TOC) was accumulated in the filter materials but was also released periodically. The results showed that Sorbulite could meet the demand in removing phosphate and nitrogen with reduced microbial release from the wastewater treatment process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 47, no 14, 5165-5175 p.
Keyword [en]
Polonite, Sorbulite, Enterococci, Escherichia coli
National Category
Environmental Biotechnology Water Treatment
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-131720DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2013.05.056ISI: 000324566400034Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84883285298OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-131720DiVA: diva2:657100
Funder
Formas
Note

QC 20131018. Updated from "Manuscript" to "Article"

Available from: 2013-10-18 Created: 2013-10-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Phosphorus removal in reactive filter materials: factors affecting the sorption capacity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phosphorus removal in reactive filter materials: factors affecting the sorption capacity
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Phosphorus is an essential component in all living organisms; it is one of the components of the DNA and the key element in the energy supplying molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Throughout the history, humans have been recycling phosphorus to agriculture; thereby increasing the yield, examples of this includes the burning of plants and the use of manure. Today, we rely on commercial fertilizers with high concentrations of phosphorus. The manufacturing of these products include extraction of phosphorus from phosphate rock. However, phosphate rock is a limited and non-renewable resource and the reserves are declining. The population on our planet in constantly increasing, hence the shortage of fertilizers would have consequences of catastrophic measurements, the most obvious being starvation. In order to avoid this scenario it is of uttermost importance to reuse the phosphorus that passes through our society and is subsequently released in the wastewater. The inadequate small-scale wastewater treatment facilities in Sweden of today are contributing with 20% to the release of phosphorus. By implementing the use of reactive filter materials in these systems, direct release of phosphorus to the recipient can be prevented. After a period of time these materials have to be exchanged, and they can thereafter be used as fertilizers, thereby re-cycling the phosphorus back to agriculture.

The effectiveness of the reactive materials is affected by several parameters, such as pH, specific surface area, hydraulic properties of the material and the characteristics and distribution of the wastewater. In order to compare the phosphorus retention capacity in three different materials, two experiments utilizing septic-tank wastewater was conducted. The first was a pilot-scale-experiment that included Polonite and blast furnace slag (BFS) as filter materials. This experiment was conducted in two phases, using wastewater with high respectively low concentrations of organic matter. The study investigated the effect of organic matter on the phosphorus retention capacity in the materials; additionally the reduction of indicator bacteria (Enterococci) and organic matter (TOC) was studied. The second experiment was conducted at the laboratory, using wastewater with high concentrations of organic matter. In this study, the phosphate retention capacity in Polonite and Sorbulite was investigated in a re-circulatory system, where the treated wastewater was re-circulated back to the influent volume of water. The additional parameters investigated in this experiment were the removal of nitrogen and TOC as well as the retention of indicator bacteria (E. coli and Enterococci).

The results showed that Polonite performed better compared to the other materials with regards to the removal of phosphate, total phosphorus and bacteria. Sorbulite had a higher removal rate of TOC and total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) compared to Polonite, which in turn removed more TOC than BFS. Furthermore, both Polonite and BFS had a higher phosphorus retention capacity when using wastewater with low concentrations of organic matter. These two materials showed a higher percentage reduction of indicator bacteria when using wastewater with high concentrations of organic matter. However, since the results showed that the bacteria count in the effluent was lower when using wastewater with low concentrations of organic matter, the higher reduction rate was therefore ascribed to a higher concentration of bacteria in wastewater with high concentrations of organic matter. Therefore, the conclusion was drawn that low concentrations of organic matter is preferable also in respect of bacteria reduction. In order to ensure a high removal of phosphorus and bacteria, as well as to prolong the lifetime of the filter material, the wastewater should be pre-treated to obtain a BOD7 value below 20 mg L-1.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. xii, 22 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. LIC, ISSN 1650-8629 ; 2066
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104730 (URN)978-91-7501-556-9 (ISBN)
Presentation
2012-11-30, V35, Teknikringen 76, KTH, Stockholm, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20121109

Available from: 2012-11-09 Created: 2012-11-09 Last updated: 2013-11-21Bibliographically approved
2. Application of magnetic nanoparticles and reactive filter materials for wastewater treatment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of magnetic nanoparticles and reactive filter materials for wastewater treatment
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Lately sewage wastewater treatment processes (WWTP) are facing challenges due to strict regulations in quality of effluent standards and waste production. The reuse of wastewater treatment effluents is rapidly gaining attention as a means of achieving sustainable water supply. Therefore, new methods are required to achieve an efficient WWTP. The foremost emphasis of the present study is to investigate filter materials, synthesis, characterization, and application of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) for WWTP. Primarily commercially available reactive filter materials such as Polonite and Sorbulite were tested for the effective reduction of contaminants in recirculation batch mode system. Secondly, the magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized using different techniques such as water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion and co- precipitation methods and testing for their ability to remove contaminants from wastewater. Thirdly, toxicity test of magnetic NPs were performed using human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and endothelial (HMEC-1) cells (Papers I-VII).

The magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MION) synthesized using the co-precipitation method were further functionalized with tri-sodium citrate (TSC), 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES), polyethylenimine (PEI) and chitosan. The functionalized MION were further characterized prior to use in removal of contaminants from wastewater. The sewage wastewater samples were collected from Hammarby Sjöstadsverk, Sweden and analyses were performed for the reduction of turbidity, color, total nitrogen, total organic carbon, phosphate and microbial content on the retrieval day.

The experimental results imply that Polonite and Sorbulite require high pH for the efficient reduction of phosphate and the reduction of microbes. Microemulsion prepared magnetic nanoparticles (ME-MION) showed ≈100% removal of phosphate in 20 minutes. Results from TEM implied that the size of magnetic Nps were around 8 nm for core (uncoated MION), TSC (11.5 nm), APTES (20 nm), PEI (11.8 nm) and chitosan (15 nm). Optimization studies using central composite face centered (CCF) design showed the potential of magnetic nanoparticles for the removal of turbidity (≈83%) and total nitrogen (≈33%) in 60 minutes. The sludge water content was reduced significantly by ≈87% when magnetic NPs were used whilst compared to the chemical precipitant used in WWTP. PEI coated MION showed ≈50% removal of total organic carbon from wastewater in 60 minutes. Effluents from wastewater treated with magnetic NPs were comparable with effluent from the present WWTP. There was no significant change observed in mineral ion concentration before and after treatment with MION. In addition, toxicity results from HMEC-1 and HaCaT cells revealed no formation of reactive oxygen species in the presence of magnetic NPs. Furthermore, laboratory experiments revealed the effectiveness and reusability of magnetic NPs. Thus magnetic NPs are a potential wastewater treatment agent and can be used for effective removal of contaminants, thereby reducing the process time, sludge water content and complex process steps involved in conventional WWTP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. ix, 63 p.
Series
TRITA-BIO-Report, ISSN 1654-2312 ; 2013:20
Keyword
Reactive filter materials, magnetic nanoparticles, wastewater treatment process, nutrient reduction, sludge water content, toxicity of magnetic nanoparticles
National Category
Water Treatment Engineering and Technology Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134236 (URN)978-91-7501-948-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-12-12, FB54, Albanova Universitet Centrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20131121

Available from: 2013-11-21 Created: 2013-11-20 Last updated: 2014-03-13Bibliographically approved

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