Technical solutions for low-temperature heat emission in buildings
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The European Union is planning to greatly decrease energy consumption during the coming decades. The ultimate goal is to create sustainable communities that are energy neutral. One way of achieving this challenging goal may be to use efficient hydronic (water-based) heating systems supported by heat pumps.
The main objective of the research reported in this work was to improve the thermal performance of wall-mounted hydronic space heaters (radiators). By improving the thermal efficiency of the radiators, their operating temperatures can be lowered without decreasing their thermal outputs. This would significantly improve efficiency of the heat pumps, and thereby most probably also reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. Thus, by improving the efficiency of radiators, energy sustainability of our society would also increase. The objective was also to investigate how much the temperature of the supply water to the radiators could be lowered without decreasing human thermal comfort.
Both numerical and analytical modeling was used to map and improve the thermal efficiency of the analyzed radiator system. Analyses have shown that it is possible to cover space heat losses at low outdoor temperatures with the proposed heating-ventilation systems using low-temperature supplies. The proposed systems were able to give the same heat output as conventional radiator systems but at considerably lower supply water temperature. Accordingly, the heat pump efficiency in the proposed systems was in the same proportion higher than in conventional radiator systems.
The human thermal comfort could also be maintained at acceptable level at low-temperature supplies with the proposed systems. In order to avoid possible draught discomfort in spaces served by these systems, it was suggested to direct the pre-heated ventilation air towards cold glazed areas. By doing so the draught discomfort could be efficiently neutralized.
Results presented in this work clearly highlight the advantage of forced convection and high temperature gradients inside and alongside radiators - especially for low-temperature supplies. Thus by a proper combination of incoming air supply and existing radiators a significant decrease in supply water temperature could be achieved without decreasing the thermal output from the system. This was confirmed in several studies in this work. It was also shown that existing radiator systems could successfully be combined with efficient air heaters. This also allowed a considerable reduction in supply water temperature without lowering the heat output of the systems. Thus, by employing the proposed methods, a significant improvement of thermal efficiency of existing radiator systems could be accomplished. A wider use of such combined systems in our society would reduce the distribution heat losses from district heating networks, improve heat pump efficiency and thereby most probably also lower carbon dioxide emissions.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , 34 p.
Analytical and numerical modeling, baseboard (skirting) heating, building energy performance, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), heat transfer, low-temperature heating, space heating, thermal comfort
Research subject Järnvägsgruppen - Effektiva tågsystem för godstrafik
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133221ISBN: 978-91-7501-940-6OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-133221DiVA: diva2:660277
2013-11-15, Sal: Q2, Osquldasväg 10, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Olesen, Bjarne, Professor
Holmberg, Sture, Professor
FunderSwedish Energy Agency
QC 201310292013-10-292013-10-292013-11-19Bibliographically approved
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