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Holistic Approach to Sustainable Bridge Procurement Considering LCC, LCA, Lifespan, User-Cost and Aesthetics: Case Study
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

An efficient procurement method is the primary initiator of sustainablebridge infrastructures. Several proposals could provide technically feasiblesolutions for a bridge in a certain location, all of which may provide therequired function, but differ substantially in life-cycle cost (LCC), servicelife-span, user-cost, aesthetic merit and environmental impact. A newparameter, LCC Added-Value, has been recently developed to facilitateprocurement of the most LCC-efficient alternative through fair design-build(D-B) tendering. However, integration of environmental, aesthetic and user-costconsiderations in bridge procurement decisions is also required. This paperintroduces a holistic procurement approach designed to enable procurement ofthe most sustainable (lifecycle-efficient) bridge under D-B contracts. Theapproach combines LCC Added-Value analysis with other novel techniques thatmake proposals’ aesthetic merit and environmental impact commensurable, therebyenabling agencies to establish monetary benchmarks concerning those aspects inan early planning phase and embed them in the tender documents as corespecifications. The lowest net equivalent LCC bid could then be used as thecontract award criterion. A presented case study illustrates the practicalimplementation of the approach, addresses roles of both contractors andagencies in it, provides insights into the various bridge aspects and identifiesshortcomings requiring further attention.

Keyword [en]
Bridge, Procurement, Life Cycle Cost Analysis, Life Cycle Assessment, Sustainable, User Cost, Aesthetic, Contract, Tender, Repair, LCC, LCA.
National Category
Civil Engineering Environmental Engineering Environmental Biotechnology Industrial Biotechnology Agricultural Sciences
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Infrastruktur; SRA - Production; SRA - Transport; The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133233OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-133233DiVA: diva2:660278
Note

QS 2013

Available from: 2013-10-29 Created: 2013-10-29 Last updated: 2015-03-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Life-Cycle Costing: Applications and Implementations in Bridge Investment and Management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life-Cycle Costing: Applications and Implementations in Bridge Investment and Management
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Sustainable and cost-efficient procurement and management of bridge infrastructure
Abstract [en]

A well-maintained bridge infrastructure is a fundamental necessity for a modern society that provides great value, but ensuring that it meets all the requirements sustainably and cost-effectively is challenging. Bridge investment and management decisions generally involve selection from multiple alternatives. All of the options may meet the functional demands, but their life-cycle cost (LCC), service life-span, user-cost, aesthetic merit and environmental impact may differ substantially. Thus, life-cycle analysis (LCCA, a widely used decision-support technique that enables comparison of the LCC of possible options), is essential. However, although LCCA has recognized potential for rationalizing bridge procurement and management decisions its use in this context is far from systematic and the integration of LCCA findings in decisions is often far from robust. Thus, the overall objective of the work underlying this thesis has been to contribute to the development of sustainable bridge infrastructures while optimizing use of taxpayers’ money, by robustly incorporating life-cycle considerations into bridge investment and management decision-making processes.

The work has introduced a full scheme for applying LCCA throughout bridges’ entire life-cycle. Several practical case studies have been presented to illustrate how an agency could benefit from use of a bridge management system (BMS) to support decisions related to the management of existing bridges and procure new bridges. Further developments include a comprehensive approach incorporating a novel LCCA technique, “LCC Added-Value Analysis”, which enables procurement of the most cost-efficient bridge design through a fair design-build (D-B) tendering process. A further contribution is a novel, holistic approach designed to enable procurement of bridges with the maximal possible sustainability (life-cycle advantages) under D-B contracts. The approach combines LCC Added-Value analysis with other techniques that make bridges’ aesthetic merit and environmental impact commensurable using an adapted concept named the willingness-to-pay-extra (WTPE).

The systematic analytical procedures and potential of LCCA to deliver major savings highlighted in this thesis clearly demonstrate both the feasibility and need to integrate LCCA into bridge procurement and management decisions. This need has been recognized by Trafikverket (the Swedish Transport Administration), which has implemented a software tool developed in the research (BaTMan-LCC) in its bridge and tunnel management system (BaTMan). This thesis introduces readers to the field, considers BaTMan and the bridge stock in Sweden, discusses the developments outlined above and obstacles hindering further implementation of LCCA, then presents proposals for further advances.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. x, 55 p.
Series
Trita-BKN. Bulletin, ISSN 1103-4270 ; 121
Keyword
Bridge, Cost, Life Cycle Cost Analysis, Procurement, Investment, Management
National Category
Civil Engineering Agricultural Sciences Environmental Engineering Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133241 (URN)
Public defence
2013-11-13, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20131029

Available from: 2013-10-29 Created: 2013-10-29 Last updated: 2013-10-30Bibliographically approved
2. Life cycle assessment of bridges, model development and case studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life cycle assessment of bridges, model development and case studies
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In recent decades, the environmental issues from the construction sector have attracted increasing attention from both the public and authorities. Notably, the bridge construction is responsible for considerable amount of energy and raw material consumptions. However, the current bridges are still mainly designed from the economic, technical, and safety perspective, while considerations of their environmental performance are rarely integrated into the decision making process. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a comprehensive, standardized and internationally recognized approach for quantifying all emissions, resource consumption and related environmental and health impacts linked to a service, asset or product. LCA has the potential to provide reliable environmental profiles of the bridges, and thus help the decision-makers to select the most environmentally optimal designs. However, due to the complexity of the environmental problems and the diversity of bridge structures, robust environmental evaluation of bridges is far from straightforward. The LCA has rarely been studied on bridges till now.

The overall aim of this research is to implement LCA on bridge, thus eventually integrate it into the decision-making process to mitigate the environmental burden at an early stage. Specific objectives are to: i) provide up-to-date knowledge to practitioners; ii) identify associated obstacles and clarify key operational issues; iii) establish a holistic framework and develop computational tool for bridge LCA; and iv) explore the feasibility of combining LCA with life cycle cost (LCC). The developed tool (called GreenBridge) enables the simultaneous comparison and analysis of 10 feasible bridges at any detail level, and the framework has been utilized on real cases in Sweden. The studied bridge types include: railway bridge with ballast or fix-slab track, road bridges of steel box-girder composite bridge, steel I-girder composite bridge, post tensioned concrete box-girder bridge, balanced cantilever concrete box-girder bridge, steel-soil composite bridge and concrete slab-frame bridge. The assessments are detailed from cradle to grave phases, covering thousands of types of substances in the output, diverse mid-point environmental indicators, the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) and monetary value weighting. Some analyses also investigated the impact from on-site construction scenarios, which have been overlooked in the current state-of-the-art.

The study identifies the major structural and life-cycle scenario contributors to the selected impact categories, and reveals the effects of varying the monetary weighting system, the steel recycling rate and the material types. The result shows that the environmental performance can be highly influenced by the choice of bridge design. The optimal solution is found to be governed by several variables. The analyses also imply that the selected indicators, structural components and life-cycle scenarios must be clearly specified to be applicable in a transparent procurement. This work may provide important references for evaluating similar bridge cases, and identification of the main sources of environmental burden. The outcome of this research may serve as recommendation for decision-makers to select the most LCA-feasible proposal and minimize environmental burdens. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. x, 36 p.
Series
TRITA-BKN. Bulletin, ISSN 1103-4270 ; 129
Keyword
Sustainable construction; Life cycle assessment; LCA; Global warming; Bridge LCA; CO2 emissions; Cumulative energy demand
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-161196 (URN)
Public defence
2015-03-30, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20150311

Available from: 2015-03-11 Created: 2015-03-09 Last updated: 2015-09-15Bibliographically approved

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