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Life-Cycle Costing: Applications and Implementations in Bridge Investment and Management
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Sustainable and cost-efficient procurement and management of bridge infrastructure (English)
Abstract [en]

A well-maintained bridge infrastructure is a fundamental necessity for a modern society that provides great value, but ensuring that it meets all the requirements sustainably and cost-effectively is challenging. Bridge investment and management decisions generally involve selection from multiple alternatives. All of the options may meet the functional demands, but their life-cycle cost (LCC), service life-span, user-cost, aesthetic merit and environmental impact may differ substantially. Thus, life-cycle analysis (LCCA, a widely used decision-support technique that enables comparison of the LCC of possible options), is essential. However, although LCCA has recognized potential for rationalizing bridge procurement and management decisions its use in this context is far from systematic and the integration of LCCA findings in decisions is often far from robust. Thus, the overall objective of the work underlying this thesis has been to contribute to the development of sustainable bridge infrastructures while optimizing use of taxpayers’ money, by robustly incorporating life-cycle considerations into bridge investment and management decision-making processes.

The work has introduced a full scheme for applying LCCA throughout bridges’ entire life-cycle. Several practical case studies have been presented to illustrate how an agency could benefit from use of a bridge management system (BMS) to support decisions related to the management of existing bridges and procure new bridges. Further developments include a comprehensive approach incorporating a novel LCCA technique, “LCC Added-Value Analysis”, which enables procurement of the most cost-efficient bridge design through a fair design-build (D-B) tendering process. A further contribution is a novel, holistic approach designed to enable procurement of bridges with the maximal possible sustainability (life-cycle advantages) under D-B contracts. The approach combines LCC Added-Value analysis with other techniques that make bridges’ aesthetic merit and environmental impact commensurable using an adapted concept named the willingness-to-pay-extra (WTPE).

The systematic analytical procedures and potential of LCCA to deliver major savings highlighted in this thesis clearly demonstrate both the feasibility and need to integrate LCCA into bridge procurement and management decisions. This need has been recognized by Trafikverket (the Swedish Transport Administration), which has implemented a software tool developed in the research (BaTMan-LCC) in its bridge and tunnel management system (BaTMan). This thesis introduces readers to the field, considers BaTMan and the bridge stock in Sweden, discusses the developments outlined above and obstacles hindering further implementation of LCCA, then presents proposals for further advances.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , x, 55 p.
Series
Trita-BKN. Bulletin, ISSN 1103-4270 ; 121
Keyword [en]
Bridge, Cost, Life Cycle Cost Analysis, Procurement, Investment, Management
National Category
Civil Engineering Agricultural Sciences Environmental Engineering Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133241OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-133241DiVA: diva2:660312
Public defence
2013-11-13, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20131029

Available from: 2013-10-29 Created: 2013-10-29 Last updated: 2013-10-30Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Development of the Swedish Bridge Management System by Upgrading and Expanding the Use of LCC
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of the Swedish Bridge Management System by Upgrading and Expanding the Use of LCC
2013 (English)In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 9, no 12, 1240-1250 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although many bridge management systems (BMSs) contain some forms of life-cycle costing (LCC), the use of LCC in bridge engineering is scarce. LCC in many BMSs has mainly been applied within the bridge operation phase to support decisions related to existing bridges. LCC has several useful applications within the bridge entire life, from cradle to grave. This paper introduces the Swedish Bridge and Tunnel Management System (BaTMan). A comprehensive integrated LCC implementation schema will be illustrated, taking into account the bridge investment and management process in Sweden. The basic economic analytical tools as well as other helpful LCC techniques are addressed. A real case study is presented to demonstrate the recent improvement of BaTMan practically in the function of whether to repair or to replace a bridge.  Cost records for 2,508 bridges are used as input data in the presented case study. Considering the same records, the average real and anticipated initial costs of different bridge types in Sweden will be schematically presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Taylor & Francis Group, 2013
Keyword
Bridge, Management, life-Cycle Costing, LCC, Bridge Management System, BMS, BaTMan, repair.
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Infrastruktur; SRA - Transport
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-72468 (URN)10.1080/15732479.2012.682588 (DOI)000320575100004 ()2-s2.0-84879649860 (Scopus ID)
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note

QC 20150630

Available from: 2012-01-31 Created: 2012-01-31 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Procurement of the most cost-efficient bridge through incorporating LCCA with BMSs: Case-Study of the Karlsnäs Bridge in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Procurement of the most cost-efficient bridge through incorporating LCCA with BMSs: Case-Study of the Karlsnäs Bridge in Sweden
(English)In: Journal of Bridge Engineering, ISSN 1084-0702, E-ISSN 1943-5592Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) has recognized potential for rationalizing bridge procurement, but its use in this context is far from systematic and the integration of LCCA findings in decisions is often far from robust. Furthermore, although most bridge management systems (BMSs) include databases of relevant information, agencies do not use them effectively to improve future bridge investment decisions. This paper introduces a comprehensive approach for agencies to exploit their BMS to procure the most cost-efficient bridge design through fair design-build (D-B) tendering processes. The approach incorporates use of a novel LCCA technique, LCC Added-Value Analysis, that can be conveniently integrated with public agencies’ established procurement procedures and maintains contractors’ freedoms in D-B processes. The proposed approach allows bridge procurers to establish monetary LCC-efficient benchmarks and embed them in tender documents as core specifications. Hence the lowest LCC bid can be employed as the contract award criterion, rather the lowest bid in initial investment terms. The Swedish Transport Administration has recently procured several bridges using the approach, thereby gaining considerable cost savings. A presented case-study provides insights into various aspects of bridges’ LCC and illustrates analytical steps that other agencies could apply in bridge procurement.

Keyword
Bridge, Procurement, Life Cycle Cost Analysis, Life Cycle Assessment, Sustainable, User Cost, Aesthetic, Contract, Tender, Repair, LCC, LCA.
National Category
Construction Management Infrastructure Engineering Other Civil Engineering Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
SRA - Transport; SRA - Production; Järnvägsgruppen - Infrastruktur; The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133227 (URN)
Note

QS 2013

Available from: 2013-10-29 Created: 2013-10-29 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Integration of life-cycle cost analysis with bridge management systems: case study of the Swedish bridge and tunnel management system.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of life-cycle cost analysis with bridge management systems: case study of the Swedish bridge and tunnel management system.
2012 (English)In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2292, 125-133 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many countries use bridge management systems (BMSs), and many of these systems involve some form of life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis. Use of LCC analysis in bridge engineering is rare, however; the technique has been applied primarily in the operation phase to support decisions about bridges that already exist. Yet LCC analysis can be applied across the life of a bridge. This paper introduces the Swedish Bridge and Tunnel Management System (BaTMan). A comprehensive, integrated LCC implementation scheme takes into account the bridge investment and management processes in Sweden. The basic economic analytical tools as well as other helpful LCC analysis techniques are described. A case study demonstrates improvements in BaTMan as a factor in the decision whether to repair or to replace a bridge. Cost records for 1,987 bridges were used as input data in the case study. On the basis of the same records, the average real and anticipated initial costs of various bridge types in Sweden are presented schematically.

Keyword
Analysis techniques, Analytical tool, Bridge engineering, Bridge management system, Bridge-type, Implementation scheme, Initial costs, Input datas, Life-cycle cost analysis, Lifecycle costs, Management process, Management systems, Operation phase
National Category
Other Civil Engineering Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-115442 (URN)10.3141/2292-15 (DOI)000313316700015 ()2-s2.0-84871579536 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150630

Available from: 2013-01-16 Created: 2013-01-15 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Applications of life-cycle costing for bridges and integration with bridge management systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applications of life-cycle costing for bridges and integration with bridge management systems
(English)In: Civil Engineering and ArchitectureArticle in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

Many countries are using bridge management systems(BMSs) as the main toll for the effective management of their bridges. Althoughmany BMSs contain some forms of life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA), the use of LCCAin bridge engineering is scarce and LCCA has mainly been applied to supportdecisions related to existing bridges. This paper discuss the need of a BMSwith an integrated LCCA tool that can assist decision makers at all levels andwithin all phases in selecting the most cost-effective solution from an arrayof applicable alternatives. The paper introduces the Swedish Bridge and TunnelManagement System (BaTMan). A comprehensive LCCA implementation scheme will beillustrated, taking into account the bridge investment and management processin Sweden. The basic LCCA analysis tools as well as other helpful techniquesare addressed. A real case study is presented to demonstrate the recentimprovement of BaTMan particularly in the function of specifying the most-costeffective bridge repair strategy. The bridge user cost is included in the LCCA.The parameters that can influence the final decision are addressed andsensitivity analyses to study their impacts are performed.

Keyword
Bridge, Management, life-Cycle Costing, LCC, Bridge Management System, BMS, BaTMan, repair.
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Infrastruktur; SRA - Transport
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-72487 (URN)
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note

QS 2012

Available from: 2012-01-31 Created: 2012-01-31 Last updated: 2013-10-29Bibliographically approved
5. Holistic Approach to Sustainable Bridge Procurement Considering LCC, LCA, Lifespan, User-Cost and Aesthetics: Case Study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Holistic Approach to Sustainable Bridge Procurement Considering LCC, LCA, Lifespan, User-Cost and Aesthetics: Case Study
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

An efficient procurement method is the primary initiator of sustainablebridge infrastructures. Several proposals could provide technically feasiblesolutions for a bridge in a certain location, all of which may provide therequired function, but differ substantially in life-cycle cost (LCC), servicelife-span, user-cost, aesthetic merit and environmental impact. A newparameter, LCC Added-Value, has been recently developed to facilitateprocurement of the most LCC-efficient alternative through fair design-build(D-B) tendering. However, integration of environmental, aesthetic and user-costconsiderations in bridge procurement decisions is also required. This paperintroduces a holistic procurement approach designed to enable procurement ofthe most sustainable (lifecycle-efficient) bridge under D-B contracts. Theapproach combines LCC Added-Value analysis with other novel techniques thatmake proposals’ aesthetic merit and environmental impact commensurable, therebyenabling agencies to establish monetary benchmarks concerning those aspects inan early planning phase and embed them in the tender documents as corespecifications. The lowest net equivalent LCC bid could then be used as thecontract award criterion. A presented case study illustrates the practicalimplementation of the approach, addresses roles of both contractors andagencies in it, provides insights into the various bridge aspects and identifiesshortcomings requiring further attention.

Keyword
Bridge, Procurement, Life Cycle Cost Analysis, Life Cycle Assessment, Sustainable, User Cost, Aesthetic, Contract, Tender, Repair, LCC, LCA.
National Category
Civil Engineering Environmental Engineering Environmental Biotechnology Industrial Biotechnology Agricultural Sciences
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Infrastruktur; SRA - Production; SRA - Transport; The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133233 (URN)
Note

QS 2013

Available from: 2013-10-29 Created: 2013-10-29 Last updated: 2015-03-11Bibliographically approved

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