ALARA: What is Reasonably Achievable?
2013 (English)In: Social and Ethical Aspects of Radiation Risk Management, Volume 19 (Radioactivity in the Environment), Elsevier, 2013, 143-155 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
"As low as practicable", "as low as reasonably practicable", and "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) are closely related principles that have been introduced into radiation protection where they supplement other principles such as justification of exposures and individual dose limits. ALARA has been interpreted differently in different practical applications. Four major issues of interpretation are identified and discussed: (1) Does ALARA require exposures to be "as low as possible" or does is require an "optimal balance" that it is undesirable to deviate from in either direction? (2) Should ALARA be applied even to very low doses or is there a dose level below which it is not applicable? (3) Should ALARA-based compromises between radiation protection and economic considerations be made separately for each company, or should they be made in a unified manner for a whole branch of industry or perhaps even for society as a whole? (4) Can ALARA be operationalized with cost-benefit calculations, and if it can, should it be based on standard monetary values for preventing a fatality or on higher such values?
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013. 143-155 p.
, Radioactivity in the Environment, ISSN 1569-4860 ; 19
ALAP, ALARA, ALARP, BAT, Best available technology, Cost-benefit analysis, De minimis, Disproportion factor, Gross disproportion test, ICRP, Optimization, Precautionary principle, Proportion factor, Radiation protection
Environmental Sciences Ethics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133376DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-08-045015-5.00009-5ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84883546052ISBN: 978-0-08-045015-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-133376DiVA: diva2:661979
QC 201311052013-11-052013-10-312013-11-05Bibliographically approved