Effects of physical fitness on relaxed G-tolerance and the exercise pressor response
2013 (English)In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 113, no 11, 2749-2759 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Fighter pilots are commonly recommended strength training as a means of improving the tolerance to withstand high gravitoinertial (G) loads. Previous studies on the effect of short-term strength-training regimens on G-endurance show equivocal results, with a majority of the studies suggesting improved G-endurance. The mechanisms underlying such improvement are unknown. Presumably, any change in G-tolerance induced by physical training habits should be manifest following long-term training. We also reasoned that during repeated straining maneuvers-as during certain G-endurance protocols-the relaxed G-tolerance and the exercise pressure response may play a significant role in maintaining adequate arterial pressure, and hence that different training modalities might alter G-endurance, by altering the exercise pressor response. Three groups of males were studied, long-term (>6 months) endurance-trained (E; n = 17), strength-trained (S; n = 16) and untrained (U; n = 17) individuals. The pressor response was studied during sustained (40 s) isometric knee extensions at 50 % of the maximal contraction level. Relaxed gradual onset-rate G-tolerance was determined. G-tolerance was similar in the E (4.6 +/- 0.5 G), S (4.9 +/- 0.8 G) and U (4.6 +/- 0.8 G) groups. The mean arterial pressure increase during isometric exercise was higher in the S (36 +/- 7 mmHg = mean +/- SD) and U (35 +/- 16 mmHg) groups than in the E group (28 +/- 8 mmHg). The results suggest that relaxed G-tolerance is unaffected by physical training habits, and that the training modality affects the magnitude of the exercise pressor response. However, it seems that the response is blunted by endurance training rather than enhanced by strength training.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 113, no 11, 2749-2759 p.
Acceleration, Anti-G straining maneuver, G-protection, Isometric muscle contraction, Muscle chemoreflex
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133624DOI: 10.1007/s00421-013-2710-zISI: 000325778900008ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84886101347OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-133624DiVA: diva2:662891
QC 201311082013-11-082013-11-082013-11-08Bibliographically approved