Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Emotional expression in music: Contribution, linearity, and additivity of primary musical cues
Department of Music, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland .
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2926-6518
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3086-0322
2013 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, 487- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study is to manipulate musical cues systematically to determine the aspects of music that contribute to emotional expression, and whether these cues operate in additive or interactive fashion, and whether the cue levels can be characterized as linear or non-linear. An optimized factorial design was used with six primary musical cues (mode, tempo, dynamics, articulation, timbre, and register) across four different music examples. Listeners rated 200 musical examples according to four perceived emotional characters (happy, sad, peaceful, and scary). The results exhibited robust effects for all cues and the ranked importance of these was established by multiple regression. The most important cue was mode followed by tempo, register, dynamics, articulation, and timbre, although the ranking varied across the emotions. The second main result suggested that most cue levels contributed to the emotions in a linear fashion, explaining 77-89% of variance in ratings. Quadratic encoding of cues did lead to minor but significant increases of the models (0-8%). Finally, the interactions between the cues were non-existent suggesting that the cues operate mostly in an additive fashion, corroborating recent findings on emotional expression in music.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 4, 487- p.
Keyword [en]
Discrete emotion ratings, Emotion, Factorial design, Music cues
National Category
Music Psychology
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133832DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00487ISI: 000331165800001ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84882608966OAI: diva2:664442

QC 20131115

Available from: 2013-11-15 Created: 2013-11-11 Last updated: 2014-03-06Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textScopusPublished version

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Eerola, TuomasFriberg, AndersBresin, Roberto
By organisation
Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH
In the same journal
Frontiers in Psychology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 186 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link