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UV-curable acrylate-based nanocomposites: Effect of polyaniline additives on the curing performance
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3201-5138
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
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2013 (English)In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 24, no 7, 668-678 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Composites of nanostructured polyaniline (PANI) conducting polymer in a polyester acrylate (PEA) formulation were made to provide conductive organic coatings. The effect of the presence and amount of PANI on the photocuring performance of the ultraviolet (UV)-curable acrylate system has been investigated employing real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as the main technique. Longer initial retardation of the radical polymerization and lower rates of cross-linking reactions were observed for dispersions containing PANI of higher than 3wt.%. The PEA/PANI samples were more affected than the neat PEA resin by the changes in UV light intensity and oxygen accessibility during UV curing. Samples with higher PANI content, of up to 10wt.%, were tested and could be partially cured even at UV light intensities as low as 2mW cm-2 when the oxygen replenishment into the system was inhibited. Thermal analysis revealed that the presence of PANI did not induce any significant change in Tg of the cured system, meaning that early decrease in mobility and vitrification is not the reason for lower ultimate conversion of the dispersions with higher PANI content compared with the neat PEA resin. Curing under strong UV lamps, of 1.5W cm-2 intensity, made it possible to reach high degrees of conversion on films with similar mechanical properties independent of the PANI content.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 24, no 7, 668-678 p.
Keyword [en]
Polyaniline, Polyester acrylate, Real-time FTIR spectroscopy, UV curing kinetics
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134167DOI: 10.1002/pat.3131ISI: 000320557400009ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84879404163OAI: diva2:665542
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research

QC 20131120

Available from: 2013-11-20 Created: 2013-11-18 Last updated: 2014-11-03Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Functional composite coatings containing conducting polymers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functional composite coatings containing conducting polymers
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Organic coatings are widely used to lower the corrosion rate of metallic structures. However, penetration of water, oxygen and corrosive ions through pores present in the coating results in corrosion initiation and propagation once these species reach the metal substrate. Considering the need for systems that offer active protection with self-healing functionality, composite coatings containing polyaniline (PANI) conducting polymer are proposed in this study. In the first phase of my work, PANI was synthesized by various methods and characterized. The rapid mixing synthesis method was chosen for the rest of this study, providing PANI with high electrical conductivity, molecular structure of emeraldine salt, and morphology of spherical nanoparticles. PANIs doped with phosphoric and methane sulfonic acid revealed hydrophilic nature, and I showed that by incorporating a long-chain alkylphosphonic acid a hydrophobic PANI could be prepared. The second phase of my project was dedicated to making homogenous dispersions of PANI in a UV-curable resin based on polyester acrylate (PEA). Interfacial energy studies revealed the highest affinity of PEA to PANI doped with phosphoric acid (PANI-PA), and no attractive or long-range repulsive forces were measured between the PANI-PA surfaces in PEA.This is ideal for making conductive composites as, along withno aggregation tendency, the PANI-PA particles might come close enough to form an electrically connected network. Highly stable PEA/PANI-PA dispersions were prepared by pretreatment of PANI-PA in acetone followed by mixing in PEA in small portions under pearl-milling. The third phase of my project dealt with kinetics of the free radical polymerization that was utilized to cure the PEA/PANI-PA mixture. UV-vis absorption studies suggested a maximum allowed PANI-PA content of around 4 wt.% in order not to affect the UV curing behavior in the UV-C region. Real-time FTIR spectroscopy studies, using a laboratory UV source, revealed longer initial retardation of the photocuring and lower rates of crosslinking reactions for dispersions containing PANI-PA of higher than 3 wt.%. The presence of PANI-PA also made the formulations more sensitive to changes in UV light intensity and oxygen inhibition during UV curing. Nevertheless, curing of the dispersions with high PANI-PA content, of up to 10 wt.%, was demonstrated to be possible at either low UV light intensities provided the oxygen replenishment into the system was prevented, or by increasing the UV light intensity to very high levels. In the last phase of my project, the PEA and PEA/PANI-PA coatings, cured under high intensity UV lamps, were characterized. SEM analysis showed small PANI-PA particles to be closely packed within the matrix, and the electrical conductivity of the composite films was measured to be in the range of semiconductors. This suggested the presence of a connected network of PANI-PA, as confirmed by investigations of mechanical and electrical variations at the nanoscale by PeakForce TUNA AFM. The data revealed the presence of a PEA-rich layer at the composite-air interface, and a much higher population of the conductive network within the polymer matrix. High current signal was correlated with a high elastic modulus, consistent with the level measured for PANI-PA, and current-voltage studies on the conductive network showed non-Ohmic characteristics. Finally, the long-term protective property of the coatings was characterized by OCP and impedance measurements. Short-term barrier-type corrosion protection provided by the insulating PEA coating was turned into a long-term and active protection by addition of as little as 1 wt.% PANI-PA. A large and stable ennoblement was induced by the coatings containing PANI-PA of up to 3 wt.%. Higher content of PANI-PA led to poorer protection, probably due to the hydrophilicity of PANI-PA facilitating water transport in the coating and the presence of potentially weaker spots in the film. An iron oxide layer was found to fully cover the metal surface beneath the coatings containing PANI-PA after final failure observed by electrochemical testing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. xviii, 85 p.
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2014:42
Conducting polymer, Polyaniline, Conductive network, Nanocomposite, Active corrosion protection, Interfacial energy, UV curing
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Research subject
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-155132 (URN)978-91-7595-301-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-11-20, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)

QC 20141103

Available from: 2014-11-03 Created: 2014-10-30 Last updated: 2016-02-02Bibliographically approved

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