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Through the Wormhole: Low Cost, Fresh Peer Sampling for the Internet
Peerialism AB, Sweden .
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9484-6714
University of Szeged.
2013 (English)In: 13th IEEE International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing, IEEE P2P 2013 - Proceedings, IEEE , 2013, 6688707- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

State of the art gossip protocols for the Internet are based on the assumption that connection establishment between peers comes at negligible cost. Our experience with commercially deployed P2P systems has shown that this cost is much higher than generally assumed. As such, peer sampling services often cannot provide fresh samples because the service would require too high a connection establishment rate. In this paper, we present the wormhole-based peer sampling service (WPSS). WPSS overcomes the limitations of existing protocols by executing short random walks over a stable topology and by using shortcuts (wormholes), thus limiting the rate of connection establishments and guaranteeing freshness of samples, respectively.We show that our approach can decrease the connection establishment rate by one order of magnitude compared to the state of the art while providing the same levels of freshness of samples. This, without sacrificing the desirable properties of a PSS for the Internet, such as robustness to churn and NAT-friendliness. We support our claims with a thorough measurement study in our deployed commercial system as well as in simulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE , 2013. 6688707- p.
Keyword [en]
NAT-resilient gossip protocols, P2P Networks, Peer Sampling
National Category
Computer Systems
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134234DOI: 10.1109/P2P.2013.6688707ISI: 000330658600013ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84893270274ISBN: 978-147990521-8OAI: diva2:665672
13th IEEE International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing, IEEE P2P 2013; Trento; Italy; 9 September 2013 through 11 September 2013

QC 20131121

Available from: 2013-11-20 Created: 2013-11-20 Last updated: 2014-03-19Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. A System, Tools and Algorithms for Adaptive HTTP-live Streaming on Peer-to-peer Overlays
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A System, Tools and Algorithms for Adaptive HTTP-live Streaming on Peer-to-peer Overlays
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In recent years, adaptive HTTP streaming protocols have become the de facto standard in the industry for the distribution of live and video-on-demand content over the Internet. In this thesis, we solve the problem of distributing adaptive HTTP live video streams to a large number of viewers using peer-to-peer (P2P) overlays. We do so by assuming that our solution must deliver a level of quality of user experience which is the same as a CDN while trying to minimize the load on the content provider’s infrastructure. Besides that, in the design of our solution, we take into consideration the realities of the HTTP streaming protocols, such as the pull-based approach and adaptive bitrate switching.

The result of this work is a system which we call SmoothCache that provides CDN-quality adaptive HTTP live streaming utilizing P2P algorithms. Our experiments on a real network of thousands of consumer machines show that, besides meeting the the CDN-quality constraints, SmoothCache is able to consistently deliver up to 96% savings towards the source of the stream in a single bitrate scenario and 94% in a multi-bitrate scenario. In addition, we have conducted a number of pilot deployments in the setting of large enterprises with the same system, albeit tailored to private networks. Results with thousands of real viewers show that our platform provides an average offloading of bottlenecks in the private network of 91.5%.

These achievements were made possible by advancements in multiple research areas that are also presented in this thesis. Each one of the contributions is novel with respect to the state of the art and can be applied outside of the context of our application. However, in our system they serve the purposes described below.

We built a component-based event-driven framework to facilitate the development of our live streaming application. The framework allows for running the same code both in simulation and in real deployment. In order to obtain scalability of simulations and accuracy, we designed a novel flow-based bandwidth emulation model.

In order to deploy our application on real networks, we have developed a network library which has the novel feature of providing on-the-fly prioritization of transfers. The library is layered over the UDP protocol and supports NAT Traversal techniques. As part of this thesis, we have also improved on the state of the art of NAT Traversal techniques resulting in higher probability of direct connectivity between peers on the Internet.

Because of the presence of NATs on the Internet, discovery of new peers and collection of statistics on the overlay through peer sampling is problematic. Therefore, we created a peer sampling service which is NAT-aware and provides one order of magnitude fresher samples than existing peer sampling protocols.

Finally, we designed SmoothCache as a peer-assisted live streaming system based on a distributed caching abstraction. In SmoothCache, peers retrieve video fragments from the P2P overlay as quickly as possible or fall back to the source of the stream to keep the timeliness of the delivery. In order to produce savings, the caching system strives to fill up the local cache of the peers ahead of playback by prefetching content. Fragments are efficiently distributed by a self-organizing overlay network that takes into account many factors such as upload bandwidth capacity, connectivity constraints, performance history and the currently being watched bitrate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. xix, 41 p.
TRITA-ICT-ECS AVH, ISSN 1653-6363 ; 13:18
peer-to-peer, distributed caching, nat traversal, congestion control, adaptive HTTP streaming, live streaming
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134351 (URN)978-91-7501-915-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-12-12, Sal D, Forum, KTH-ICT, Isafjordsgatan 39, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)

QC 20131122

Available from: 2013-11-22 Created: 2013-11-21 Last updated: 2016-01-21Bibliographically approved

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