Addressing transient and permanent faults in NoC with efficient fault-tolerant deflection router
2013 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (vlsi) Systems, ISSN 1063-8210, Vol. 21, no 6, 1053-1066 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Continuing decrease in the feature size of integrated circuits leads to increases in susceptibility to transient and permanent faults. This paper proposes a fault-tolerant solution for a bufferless network-on-chip, including an on-line fault-diagnosis mechanism to detect both transient and permanent faults, a hybrid automatic repeat request, and forward error correction link-level error control scheme to handle transient faults and a reinforcement-learning-based fault-tolerant deflection routing (FTDR) algorithm to tolerate permanent faults without deadlock and livelock. A hierarchical-routing-table-based algorithm (FTDR-H) is also presented to reduce the area overhead of the FTDR router. Synthesized results show that, compared with the FTDR router, the FTDR-H router can reduce the area by 27% in an 8×8 network. Simulation results demonstrate that under synthetic workloads, in the presence of permanent link faults, the throughput of an 8×8 network with FTDR and FTDR-H algorithms are 14% and 23% higher on average than that with the fault-on-neighbor (FoN) aware deflection routing algorithm and the cost-based deflection routing algorithm, respectively. Under real application workloads, the FTDR-H algorithm achieves 20% less hop counts on average than that of the FoN algorithm. For transient faults, the performance of the FTDR router can achieve graceful degradation even at a high fault rate. We also implement the fault-tolerant deflection router which can achieve 400 MHz in TSMC 65-nm technology.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 21, no 6, 1053-1066 p.
Deflection routing, fault-tolerance, on-line fault diagnosis, permanent fault, transient fault
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Computer Science
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134264DOI: 10.1109/TVLSI.2012.2204909ISI: 000319473000006ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84878344088OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-134264DiVA: diva2:665837
QC 201311212013-11-212013-11-202013-12-09Bibliographically approved