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Experimental Investigations of High Pressure Catalytic Combustion for Gas Turbine Applications
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. (Combustion and Heat and Power systems)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9240-5974
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This work is devoted to generate knowledge and high quality experimental data of catalytic combustion at operational gas turbine conditions.

The initial task of the thesis work was to design and construct a high pressure combustion test facility, where the catalytic combustion experiments can be performed at real gas turbine conditions. With this in mind, a highly advanced combustion test facility has been designed, constructed and tested. This test facility is capable of simulating combustion conditions relevant to a wide range of operating gas turbine conditions and different kinds of fuel gases. The shape of the combustor (test section) is similar to a “can” type gas turbine combustor, but with significant differences in its type of operation. The test combustor is expected to operate at near adiabatic combustion conditions and there will be no additions of cooling, dilution or secondary supply of air into the combustion process. The geometry of the combustor consists of three main zones such as air/fuel mixing zone, catalytic reaction zone and downstream gas phase reaction zone with no difference of the mass flow at inlet and exit. The maximum capacity of the test facility is 100 kW (fuel power) and the maximum air flow rate is 100g/s.

The significant features of the test facility are counted as its operational pressure range (1 – 35 atm), air inlet temperatures (100 – 650 °C), fuel flexibility (LHV 4 - 40 MJ/m3) and air humidity (0 – 30% kg/kg of air). Given these features, combustion could be performed at any desired pressure up to 35 bars while controlling other parameters independently. Fuel flexibility of the applications was also taken into consideration in the design phase and proper measures have been taken in order to utilize two types of targeted fuels, methane and gasified biomass.

Experimental results presented in this thesis are the operational performances of highly active precious metal catalysts (also called as ignition catalysts) and combinations of precious metal, perovskites and hexaaluminate catalysts (also called as fully catalytic configuration). Experiments were performed on different catalytic combustor configurations of various types of catalysts with methane and simulated gasified biomass over the full range of pressure. The types of catalysts considered on the combustor configurations are palladium on alumina (Pd/AL2O3), palladium lanthanum hexaaluminate (PdLaAl11O19), platinum on alumina (Pt/AL2O3),and palladium:platinum bi-metal on alumina (Pd:Pt/AL2O3). The influence of pressure, inlet temperature, flow velocity and air fuel ratio on the ignition, combustion stability and emission generation on the catalytic system were investigated and presented.

Combustion catalysts were developed and provided mainly by the project partner, the Division of Chemical Technology, KTH. Division of Chemical Reaction Technology, KTH and Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione (CNR) Italy were also collaborated with some of the experimental investigations by providing specific types of catalysts developed by them for the specific conditions of gas turbine requirements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , xxiv, 122 p.
Series
TRITA-KRV, ISSN 1100-7990 ; 13:10
Keyword [en]
Gas Turbine Combustion, Catalytic Combustion, High Pressure, Ultra-low emissions
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134445ISBN: 978-91-7501-937-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-134445DiVA: diva2:666920
Public defence
2013-12-11, M3, Brinellvägen 64, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20131125

Available from: 2013-11-25 Created: 2013-11-25 Last updated: 2017-03-07Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Bench Scale Experimental Test Rig  for High Pressure Catalytic Combustion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bench Scale Experimental Test Rig  for High Pressure Catalytic Combustion
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2002 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-78517 (URN)
Conference
5th International Workshop on Catalytic Combustion, Seou, Seoul, Korea, 29 April-1 May, 2002. OD-2
Note

QC 20131125

Available from: 2012-02-08 Created: 2012-02-08 Last updated: 2013-11-25Bibliographically approved
2. Catalytic Combustion Developments for Ultra Low Emission Gas Turbine Combustion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Catalytic Combustion Developments for Ultra Low Emission Gas Turbine Combustion
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2003 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134603 (URN)
Conference
7 th International Conference on Energy for Clean Environment, Clean Air 2003, Lisbon Portugal, July 2003
Note

QC 20131125

Available from: 2013-11-25 Created: 2013-11-25 Last updated: 2013-11-25Bibliographically approved
3. Experimental Investigations of High Pressure Catalytic Combustion of Methane
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Investigations of High Pressure Catalytic Combustion of Methane
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2003 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-78481 (URN)
Conference
Meeting of the Scandinavian-Nordic and Italian Sections of The Combustion Institute
Note

QC 20131125

Available from: 2012-02-08 Created: 2012-02-08 Last updated: 2013-11-25Bibliographically approved
4. Ultra Low Emission Gas Turbine Combustion: An Expoerimental Investigation of Catalytically Stabilizws Lean Pre-mixed Combustion on Modern Gas Turbine Conditions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ultra Low Emission Gas Turbine Combustion: An Expoerimental Investigation of Catalytically Stabilizws Lean Pre-mixed Combustion on Modern Gas Turbine Conditions
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2004 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-78425 (URN)
Conference
24 th Congress of Internal Com bustion Engines (CIMAC), Kyoto, Japan, June, 2004
Note

QC 20120219

Available from: 2012-02-08 Created: 2012-02-08 Last updated: 2013-11-25Bibliographically approved
5. Experimental investigations of catalytic combustion for high-pressure gas turbine applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental investigations of catalytic combustion for high-pressure gas turbine applications
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2006 (English)In: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2006, Vol 1, 2006, 763-771 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Catalytic combustion has proven to be a suitable alternative to conventional flame combustion in gas turbines for achieving Ultra-Low Emission levels (ULE). In the process of catalytic combustion, it is possible to achieve a stable combustion of lean fuel/air mixtures which results in reduced combustion temperature in the combustor. The ultimate result is that almost no thermal-NOx is formed and the emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions are reduced to single-digit limits. Successful development of catalytic combustion technology would lead to reducing pollutant emissions in gas turbines to ultra-low levels at lower operating costs. Since the catalytic combustion prevents the pollutant formations in the combustion there is no need for costly emission cleaning systems.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-42237 (URN)000243377500077 ()2-s2.0-33750815959 (Scopus ID)0-7918-4236-3 (ISBN)
Conference
51st ASME Turbo Expo Location: Barcelona, Spain, Date: MAY 06-11, 2006
Note

QC 20111007

Available from: 2011-10-07 Created: 2011-10-06 Last updated: 2013-11-25Bibliographically approved
6. Gasified biomass fuelled gas turbine: Combustion stability and selective catalytic oxidation of fuel-bound nitrogen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gasified biomass fuelled gas turbine: Combustion stability and selective catalytic oxidation of fuel-bound nitrogen
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2006 (English)In: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2006, Vol 1, 2006, 773-780 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Low heating value of gasified biomass and its fuel bound nitrogen containing compounds challenge the efforts on utilizing gasified biomass on gas turbine combustor. Low heating value of the gas brings along combustion stability issues and pollutant emission concerns. The fuel bound nitrogen present in gasified biomass could completely be converted to NOx during the combustion process. Catalytic combustion technology, showing promising developments on ultra low emission gas turbine combustion of natural gas could also be the key to successful utilization of biomass in gas turbine combustor. Catalysts could stabilize the combustion process of low heating value gas while the proper design of the catalytic configuration could selectively convert the fuel bound nitrogen into molecular nitrogen. This paper presents preliminary results of the experimental investigations on combustion stability and nitrogen selectivity in selective catalytic oxidation of ammonia in catalytic combustion followed by a brief description of the design of catalytic combustion test facility. The fuel-NOx reduction strategy considered in this study was to preprocess fuel in the catalytic system to remove fuel bound nitrogen before real combustion reactions occurs. The catalytic combustion system studied here contained two stage reactor in one unit containing fuel preprocessor (SCO catalyst) and combustion catalysts. Experiments were performed under lean combustion conditions (lambda value from 6 up to 22) using a simulated mixture of gasified biomass. The Selective Catalytic Oxidation approach was considered to reduce the conversion of NH3 into N-2. Results showed very good combustion stability, higher combustion efficiency and good ignition performances under the experimental conditions. However, the selective oxidation of fuel bound nitrogen into N-2 was only in the range of 20% to 30% under the above conditions.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-42238 (URN)10.1115/GT2006-90988 (DOI)000243377500078 ()2-s2.0-33750836430 (Scopus ID)0-7918-4236-3 (ISBN)
Conference
51st ASME Turbo Expo Location: Barcelona, Spain, Date: MAY 06-11, 2006
Note

QC 20111007

Available from: 2011-10-07 Created: 2011-10-06 Last updated: 2014-04-09Bibliographically approved
7. Supported palladium-platinum catalyst for methane combustion at high pressure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supported palladium-platinum catalyst for methane combustion at high pressure
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2005 (English)In: Catalysis Today, ISSN 0920-5861, E-ISSN 1873-4308, Vol. 100, 479-483 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Catalytic combustion of methane over a supported bimetallic Pd-Pt catalyst and a monometallic Pd catalyst has been investigated experimentally. Two different reactor configurations were used in the study, i.e. a tubular lab-scale reactor working at atmospheric pressure and a high-pressure reactor working at up to 15 bar. The results showed that the bimetallic catalyst has a clearly more stable activity during steady-state operation compare to the palladium only catalyst. The activity of the bimetallic catalyst was slightly higher than for the palladium catalyst. These results were established in both test facilities. Further, the impact of pressure on the combustion activity has been studied experimentally. The tests showed that the methane conversion decreases with increasing pressure. However, the impact of pressure is more prominent at lower pressures and levels out for pressures above 10 bar

Keyword
high pressure, palladium, platinum, bimetallic catalysts, methane, combustion stability
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6564 (URN)10.1016/j.cattod.2004.08.018 (DOI)000229275100047 ()2-s2.0-17344370162 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100916. 11th Nordic Symposium on Catalysis. Oulu, FINLAND. MAY 23-25, 2004 Available from: 2006-12-11 Created: 2006-12-11 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
8. High Pressure Catalytic Combustion of Methane in a Multi Segmented Catalytic Combustor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Pressure Catalytic Combustion of Methane in a Multi Segmented Catalytic Combustor
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2005 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-78413 (URN)
Conference
6th International Workshop on Catalytic Combustion, Ischia, Italy
Note

QC 20120219

Available from: 2012-02-08 Created: 2012-02-08 Last updated: 2013-11-25Bibliographically approved
9. Staged Lean Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Biomass for Gas Turbine Applications: an Experimental Approach to Investigate Performance of Catalysts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Staged Lean Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Biomass for Gas Turbine Applications: an Experimental Approach to Investigate Performance of Catalysts
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2013, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Emission demands for gas turbine utilization will become more stringent in the coming years. Currently different techniques are used to reach low levels of NOx emissions. One possible solution is the Staged Lean Catalytic Combustion. In this concept a catalysts arrangement is used to generate high temperature combustion gases. The high temperature gases could be used to feed a second combustion stage in which more fuel is injected.

In this work a series of experiments were performed at the Catalytic Combustion High Pressure Test Facility at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Sweden. The fuel used was a simulated gasified biomass and the catalytic combustor consisted of an arrangement of different catalysts, e.g. bimetallic, hexaaluminates, and perovskites catalysts. These were used as, ignition catalyst, medium temperature catalyst and high temperature catalyst respectively.

The tests were performed between 5 and 13.5 bar, and the overall conversion varied between 60% and 70% and the temperature of flue gases could reach 750°C and contains high level of oxygen. The determining factor to control the exit gas temperature was the richness of the mixture (λ value). On the other hand, the increased pressure had a moderate negative effect in the overall fuel conversion. This effect is stronger at leaner mixtures compared to richer ones. Moreover, λ value and also pressure affected the temperature distribution along the reactor.

The utilization of a lean catalytic combustion approach makes possible the use of a post catalytic combustion. In this region additional fuel is injected to fully burn the exiting gases and increase the exit temperature to the desired levels. This staged lean catalytic combustion approach could resemble moderate levels exhaust gas recirculation techniques and/or high air temperature combustion and it is also briefly examined in the present work.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134605 (URN)10.1115/GT2013-95339 (DOI)2-s2.0-84890216723 (Scopus ID)978-0-7918-5513-3 (ISBN)
Conference
ASME Turbo Expo 2013, June 3-7, 2013, San Antonio, Texas
Note

QC 20131125

Available from: 2013-11-25 Created: 2013-11-25 Last updated: 2014-04-09Bibliographically approved
10. Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Natural Gas in Gas Turbine Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Natural Gas in Gas Turbine Applications
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2013, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The demands of emissions, combustion efficiency over a wider operational range, and fuel flexibility for industrial gas turbine applications are expected to increase in the coming years. Currently, it is common the use of a stabilizing piloting diffusion flame during part load operation, this flame is accountable for an important part of the thermal NOx emissions on partial load, and in some cases also at full load operation. On the other hand Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) of natural gas is a technique used in petrochemical industry for the Fischer-Tropsch process and for H2 production, and is based in the production of Syn-Gas rich in H2 and CO.

The present work explores the possibility to use the CPO of natural gas in industrial gas turbine applications, it is based in experiments performed between 5 and 13 bar using an arrangement of Rh based catalyst and CH4. The experiments were done at the Catalytic Combustion High Pressure Test Facility, at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Sweden. The gas produced leaves the CPO reactor between 700 and 850 °C and it is rich in H2 and CO. It was found that the most important parameter after reaching the light off temperature in the CPO reactor is the equivalence ratio Φ, which evidences the kinetically controlled regime in the Rh catalyst that depends on O2 availability. The H2/CO ratio is close to the theoretical value of 2 and the selectivity towards H2 and CO are 90% and 95% respectively while the CH4 conversion reached approximately 55%.

Pressure on the other hand had a small negative influence in the tested pressure range and it is more relevant at richer fuel conditions (high equivalence ratios). The CPO process had shown that it is relatively easy to control the operation temperature of the catalyst. This temperature is kept below the maximum allowed by reducing the O2 availability.

The high temperature Syn-Gas gas produced through CPO process could be burnt in the downstream of the catalysts steadily at flame temperatures below the thermal-NOx threshold. The CPO reactor could provide the flame stabilization function at a wide range of operational conditions, and replace the diffusion piloting flame. This approach could cope with NOx and CO emissions in a wider operational range and offers the possibility of using different fuels as the reaction controlling factor is O2 availability. Furthermore, an initial design of a possible combustion strategy downstream of the CPO reactor is also presented.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134606 (URN)10.1115/GT2013-95338 (DOI)2-s2.0-84890189567 (Scopus ID)978-0-7918-5511-9 (ISBN)
Conference
ASME Turbo Expo 2013, June 3-7, 2013, San Antonio, Texas
Note

QC 20131125

Available from: 2013-11-25 Created: 2013-11-25 Last updated: 2014-04-09Bibliographically approved

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