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Oxidative Stress and Dermal Toxicity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles In Vitro
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2013 (English)In: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, ISSN 1085-9195, E-ISSN 1559-0283, Vol. 67, no 2, 461-476 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A number of commercially available metal/metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) such as superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPION) are utilized by the medical field for a wide variety of applications. These NPs may able to induce dermal toxicity via their physical nature and reactive surface properties. We hypothesize that SPION may be toxic to skin via the ability of particles to be internalized and thereby initiate oxidative stress, inducing redox-sensitive transcription factors affecting/leading to inflammation. Due to the skin's susceptibility to UV radiation, it is also of importance to address the combined effect of UVB and NPs co-exposure. To test this hypothesis, the effects of dextran-coated SPION of different sizes (15-50 nm) and manufacturers (MicroMod, Rostock-Warnemunde, Germany and KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden) were evaluated in two cell lines: normal human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) and murine epidermal cells (JB6 P+). HEK cells exposed to 20 nm (KTH and MicroMod) had a decrease in viability, while the 15 and 50 nm particles were not cytotoxic. HEK cells were also capable of internalizing the KTH particles (15 and 20 nm) but not the MicroMod SPION (20 and 50 nm). IL-8 and IL-6 were also elevated in HEK cells following exposure to SPION. Exposure of JB6 P+ cells to all SPIONs evaluated resulted in activation of AP-1. Exposure to SPION alone was not sufficient to induce NF-kappa B activation; however, co-exposure with UVB resulted in significant NF-kappa B induction in cells exposed to 15 and 20 nm KTH SPION and 50 nm MicroMod particles. Pre-exposure of JB6 P+ cells to UVB followed by NPs induced a significant depletion of glutathione, release of cytokines, and cell damage as assessed by release of lactate dehydrogenase. Altogether, these data indicate that co-exposure to UVB and SPIONs was associated with induction of oxidative stress and release of inflammatory mediators. These results verify the need to thoroughly evaluate the adverse effects of UVB when evaluating dermal toxicity of engineered NPs on skin.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 67, no 2, 461-476 p.
Keyword [en]
Nanoparticles, Skin exposure, Ultraviolet radiation, Iron oxide
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Cell Biology
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134729DOI: 10.1007/s12013-012-9367-9ISI: 000326282900024ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84886583005OAI: diva2:668275
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, EC-FP-7-NANOMMUNE-214281

QC 20131129

Available from: 2013-11-29 Created: 2013-11-28 Last updated: 2016-01-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Application of Nanomaterials for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium and their Biological Implications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of Nanomaterials for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium and their Biological Implications
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) stated that chromium in the form of Cr(VI) has been deemed to be a class-A human carcinogen. It has been a major contaminant associated with wastewater. Moreover, the existence of heavy metals in aquatic systems is a critical concern for the environment as well as industries that manufacture or consume these particular elements. In order to remove these particular toxic metals, several well-known conventional methods including ion-exchange, filtration and adsorption are used. Amongst these methods, adsorption offers significant advantages such as the low-cost materials, ease of operation and efficiency in comparison to the other conventional methods.

The aim of this work was to develop nanomaterials (particles and fibers) to address some critical issues for the treatment of heavy metals, especially chromium in aqueous systems. Furthermore, the use of nanomaterials and how they relate to nanoscale operations at the biological level has generated considerable concerns in spite of their novel properties.

The first part of this thesis deals with the synthesis and characterizations of Fe3O4, magnetite, as nanoparticles which were further coated with surfactants bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid, Cyanex-301, and 3-Mercaptopropionic acid with the active compound being the thiol (SH) groups, that will suffice as a viable material for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions. The proposed mechanism was the complexation between the thiol group on Cyanex-301 and 3-Mercaptopropionic acid, respectively. The effect of different parameters on the adsorption including contact time, initial and final Cr(VI) ion concentration and solution pH was investigated.

The second part of this thesis encompassed the fabrication of flexible nanocomposite materials, with a large surface area and architecture for the removal of Cr(VI) in batch and continuous flow mode. A technique known as electrospinning was used to produce the nanofibers. The flexible yet functional materials architecture has been achieved by growing ZnO nanorod arrays through chemical bath deposition on synthesized electrospun poly-L-lactide nanofibers. Moreover, polyacrylonitrile nanofibers (PAN) were synthesized and adapted by the addition of hydroxylamine hydrochloride to produce amidoxime polyacrylonitrile nanofibers (A-PAN). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to identify the morphologies and particle sizes whereas Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to identify either the presence or absence of functional groups for the formation of PAN and A-PAN nanofibers. The optimization of functionalized nanoadsorbents to adsorb Cr(VI) was also carried out to investigate the effect of experimental parameters: contact time, solution pH, initial, final and other metal ion concentration. Commercially manufactured pristine engineered (TiO2, ZnO and SiO2) nanoparticles and lab-made functionalized (Fe3O4 and CeO2) nanoparticles were studied while the powders were suspended in appropriate media by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) to identify their cytotoxicity effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. 76 p.
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2016:4
Nanomaterials, Chromium, Biology
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179871 (URN)978-91-7595-813-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-01-29, sal D2, Lindstedisvägen 5, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)

QC 20160111

Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2016-01-04 Last updated: 2016-01-11Bibliographically approved

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