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Numerical Studies of Flow and AssociatedLosses in the Exhaust Port of a Diesel Engine
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the last decades, the focus of internal combustion engine development has moved towards more efficient and less pollutant engines. In a Diesel engine, approximately 30-40% of the energy provided by combustion is lost through the exhaust gases. The exhaust gases are hot and therefore rich of energy. Some of this energy can be recovered by recycling the exhaust gases into turbocharger. However, the energy losses in the exhaust port are highly undesired and the mechanisms driving the total pressure losses in the exhaust manifold not fully understood. Moreover, the efficiency of the turbine is highly dependent on the upstream flow conditions.

Thus, a numerical study of the flow in the exhaust port geometry of a Scania heavy-duty Diesel engine is carried out mainly by using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach. The purpose is to characterize the flow in the exhaust port, analyze and identify the sources of the total pressure losses. Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulation results are included for comparison purposes. The calculations are performed with fixed valve and stationary boundary conditions for which experimental data are available. The simulations include a verification study of the solver using different grid resolutions and different valve lift states. The calculated numerical data are compared to existent measured pressure loss data. The results show that even global parameters like total pressure losses are predicted better by LES than by URANS. The complex three-dimensional flow structures generated in the flow field are qualitatively assessed through visualization and analyzed by statistical means. The near valve region is a major source of losses. Due to the presence of the valve, an annular, jet-like flow structure is formed where the high-velocity flow follows the valve stem into the port. Flow separation occurs immediately downstream of the valve seat on the walls of the port and also on the surface of the valve body. Strong longitudinal, non-stationary secondary flow structures (i.e. in the plane normal to the main flow direction) are observed in the exhaust manifold. Such structures can degrade the efficiency of a possible turbine of a turbocharger located downstream on the exhaust manifold.

The effect of the valve and piston motion has also been studied by the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach. Within the exhaust process, the valves open while the piston continues moving in the combustion chamber. This process is often analyzed modeling the piston and valves at fixed locations, but conserving the total mass flow. Using advanced methods, this process can be simulated numerically in a more accurate manner. Based on LES data, the discharge coefficients are calculated following the strict definition. The results show that the discharge coefficient can be overestimated (about 20 %) when using simplified experiments, e. g. flow bench. Simple cases using fixed positions for valve and piston are contrasted with cases which consider the motion of piston and/or valves. The overall flow characteristics are compared within the cases. The comparison shows it is impossible to rebuild the dynamic flow field with the simplification with fixed valves. It is better to employ LES to simulate the dynamic flow and associated losses with valve and piston motion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , x, 81 p.
Series
Trita-MEK, ISSN 0348-467X ; 2013:19
Keyword [en]
Internal Combustion Engine, Exhaust flow, Exhaust Valve, Exhaust Port, Large Eddy Simulation, Valve and Piston Motion, Total Pressure Losses, Energy Losses, Discharge coefficient, Flow Losses, Flow structures, Air Flow Bench, Engine-like Conditions
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134844ISBN: 978-91-7501-957-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-134844DiVA: diva2:668344
Public defence
2013-12-17, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20131204

Available from: 2013-12-04 Created: 2013-11-29 Last updated: 2013-12-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. LES of the Exhaust Flow in a Heavy-Duty Engine
Open this publication in new window or tab >>LES of the Exhaust Flow in a Heavy-Duty Engine
2014 (English)In: Oil & gas science and technology, ISSN 1294-4475, E-ISSN 1953-8189, Vol. 69, no 1, 177-188 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The flow in the exhaust port and the exhaust manifold of a heavy-duty Diesel engine has been studied using the Large Eddy Simulation approach. Some of the flow characteristics in these components are: flow unsteadiness and separation combined with significant geometry-induced secondary flow motion. Detailed analysis of these features may add understanding which can be used to decrease the flow losses and increase the eciency of downstream components such as turbochargers and EGR coolers. Few LES studies of the flow in these components have been conducted in the past and this, together with the complexity of the flow are the motivations for this work. This paper shows that in the exhaust port, even global parameters like total pressure losses are handled better by LES than RANS. Flow structures of the type that afect both turbine performance and EGR cooler efficiency are generated in the manifold and these are found to vary significantly during the exhaust pulse. This paper also clearly illustrates the need to make coupled simulations in order to handle the complicated boundary conditions of these gas exchange components.

National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-116139 (URN)10.2516/ogst/2013117 (DOI)000333020500012 ()2-s2.0-84894033755 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140422

Available from: 2013-01-16 Created: 2013-01-16 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Flow structures and losses in the exhaust port of an internal combustion engine
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flow structures and losses in the exhaust port of an internal combustion engine
2014 (English)In: ASME 2013 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition: Fluids Engineering Systems and Technologies, ASME Press, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A numerical study of the flow in the exhaust port geometry of a Scania heavy-duty Diesel engine is carried out mainly by using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach. Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulation results are included for comparison purposes. The calculations are performed with fixed valve and stationary boundary conditions for which experimental data are available. The simulations include a verification study of the solver using different grid resolutions and different valve lift states. The calculated numerical data are compared to existent measured pressure loss data. The results show that even global parameters like total pressure losses are predicted better by LES than by URANS. The complex three-dimensional flow structures generated in the flow field are qualitatively assessed through visualization and analyzed by statistical means. The near valve region is a major source of losses. Due to the presence of the valve, an annular, jet-like flow structure is formed where the high-velocity flow follows the valve stem into the port. Flow separation occurs immediately downstream of the valve seat on the walls of the port and also on the surface of the valve body. Strong longitudinal, non-stationary secondary flow structures (i.e. in the plane normal to the main flow direction) are observed in the exhaust manifold. Such structures can degrade the efficiency of a possible turbine of a turbocharger located downstream on the exhaust manifold.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ASME Press, 2014
Keyword
Exhaust port manifold, exit valve port, loses, flow structures, LES, ICE
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-124135 (URN)10.1115/IMECE2013-64610 (DOI)000359959700045 ()2-s2.0-84903486900 (Scopus ID)978-079185631-4 (ISBN)
Conference
ASME 2013 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE 2013; San Diego, CA; United States; 15 November 2013 through 21 November 2013
Note

QC 20130719

Available from: 2013-06-26 Created: 2013-06-26 Last updated: 2015-09-18Bibliographically approved
3. Flow-structures Generated by Valve and Piston Motion in an Exhaust Port of a Truck Engine
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flow-structures Generated by Valve and Piston Motion in an Exhaust Port of a Truck Engine
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Jets, Wakes and Separated Flows-IV, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The exhaust port of a truck internal combustion engine forms the interface between the combustion engine and the turbocharger. Approximately 30-40% of the energy potential is lost in the exhaust gasses after combustion, which can be partially recuperated in a turbocharger. Hence, energy losses in the connection are highly undesired. However, due to the high occurring velocities and the complex geometry, flow separation, flowstructure formation, and secondary flow motion are the major sources of energy losses. Within the exhaust process, the valves open while the piston continues moving in the combustion camber. This process is often analyzed by modeling the piston and valves at fixed locations, but conserving the total mass flow. Using advanced methods, this process can be simulated numerically in a more accurate manner. This study compares Large Eddy Simulation based data, assessing the implied differences due to the choise of method for simulating the exhaust process from an engine cylinder. A simple case using fixed positions for valve and piston is contrasted with the cases where static valve and moving piston, and moving valve and moving piston are considered, respectively. The generated flow phenomena are  compared within the cases.

Keyword
Exhaust gas energy, Turbocharged engines, Automotive exhaust systems
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134840 (URN)
Conference
4th International Conference on Jets, Wakes and Separated Flows, ICJWSF2013,September 17-21, 2013, Nagoya, Japan
Note

QC 20131204

Available from: 2013-11-29 Created: 2013-11-29 Last updated: 2014-06-03Bibliographically approved
4. Flow Induced Energy Losses in the Exhaust Port of an Internal Combustion Engine
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flow Induced Energy Losses in the Exhaust Port of an Internal Combustion Engine
2014 (English)In: Journal of Fluids Engineering - Trancactions of The ASME, ISSN 0098-2202, E-ISSN 1528-901X, Vol. 137, no 1, 011105-01-011105-09 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A numerical study of the flow in the exhaust port geometry of a Scania heavy-duty diesel engine is performed using the large eddy simulation (LES) and an unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) simulation approach. The calculations are performed at fixed valve positions and stationary boundary conditions to mimic the setup of an air flow bench experiment, which is commonly used to acquire input data for one-dimensional engine simulations. The numerical results are validated against available experimental data. The complex three-dimensional (3D) flow structures generated in the flow field are qualitatively assessed through visualization and analyzed by statistical means. For low valve lifts, the major source of kinetic energy losses occurs in the proximity of the valve. Flow separation occurs immediately downstream of the valve seat. Strong helical flow structures are observed in the exhaust manifold, which are caused due an interaction of the exhaust port streams in the port geometry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keyword
Exhaust port, Internal Combustion Engine, Large Eddy Simulation
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134842 (URN)10.1115/1.4027952 (DOI)000348049600005 ()2-s2.0-84907812254 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140930

Available from: 2013-11-29 Created: 2013-11-29 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
5. Flow effects due to pulsation in an internal combustion engine exhaust port
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flow effects due to pulsation in an internal combustion engine exhaust port
2014 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 86, 520-536 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In an internal combustion engine, the residual energy remaining after combustion in the exhaust gasses can be partially recovered by a downstream arranged device. The exhaust port represents the passage guiding the exhaust gasses from the combustion chamber to the energy recovering device, e.g. a turbocharger. Thus, energy losses in the course of transmission shall be reduced as much as possible. However, in one-dimensional engine models used for engine design, the exhaust port is reduced to its discharge coefficient, which is commonly measured under constant inflow conditions neglecting engine-like flow pulsation. In this present study, the influence of different boundary conditions on the energy losses and flow development during the exhaust stroke are analyzed numerically regarding two cases, i.e. using simple constant and pulsating boundary conditions. The compressible flow in an exhaust port geometry of a truck engine is investigated using three-dimensional Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The results contrast the importance of applying engine-like boundary conditions in order to estimate accurately the flow induced losses and the discharge coefficient of the exhaust port. The instantaneous flow field alters significantly when pulsating boundary conditions are applied. Thus, the induced losses by the unsteady flow motion and the secondary flow motion are increased with inflow pulsations. The discharge coefficient decreased about 2% with flow pulsation. A modal flow decomposition method, i.e. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), is used to analyze the coherent structures induced with the particular inflow and outflow conditions. The differences in the flow field for different boundary conditions suggest to incorporate a modeling parameter accounting for the quality of the flow at the turbocharger turbine inlet in one-dimensional simulations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keyword
Internal combustion engines, Fuel economy, Turbocharged engines, Exhaust gas energy, Automotive exhaust systems
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134843 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2014.06.034 (DOI)000340976900051 ()2-s2.0-84903639552 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20140828

Available from: 2013-11-29 Created: 2013-11-29 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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