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The effect of superhydrophobic wetting state on corrosion protection - The AKD example
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8622-0386
Show others and affiliations
2013 (English)In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 412, 56-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Corrosion is of considerable concern whenever metal is used as construction material. In this study we address whether superhydrophobic coatings could be used as part of an environmentally friendly corrosion-protective system, and specific focus is put on how the wetting regime of a superhydrophobic coating affects corrosion inhibition. Superhydrophobic alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) wax coatings were produced, using different methods resulting in hierarchical structures, where the coatings exhibit the same surface chemistry but different wetting regimes. Contact angle measurements, ESEM, confocal Raman microscopy, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to evaluate the surfaces. Remarkably high impedance values of 1010Ωcm2 (at 10-2Hz) were reached for the sample showing superhydrophobic lotus-like wetting. Simultaneous open circuit potential measurements suggest that the circuit is broken, most likely due to the formation of a thin air layer at the coating-water interface that inhibits ion transport from the electrolyte to the metal substrate. The remaining samples, showing superhydrophobic wetting in the rose state and hydrophobic Wenzel-like wetting, showed less promising corrosion-protective properties. Due to the absence of air films on these surfaces the coatings were penetrated by the electrolyte, which allowed the corrosion reaction to proceed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 412, 56-64 p.
Keyword [en]
Alkyl ketene dimer (AKD), Corrosion protection, Superhydrophobic coating, Wetting state
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-136081DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2013.09.006ISI: 000326665700009Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84885028398OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-136081DiVA: diva2:675651
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , 2005:0073/13 RMA08-0044
Note

QC 20131204

Available from: 2013-12-04 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Superhydrophobic coatings of wax and polymers sprayed from supercritical solutions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Superhydrophobic coatings of wax and polymers sprayed from supercritical solutions
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The possibility of using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as the primary solvent in a spray process for producing superhydrophobic surfaces have been examined in this work. Using scCO2 as solvent will have considerably lower environmental impact compared to an organic solvent since scCO2 is considered a green solvent as it is non-toxic, non-flammable and recyclable. To be able to work at the pressures needed to reach the supercritical state of carbon dioxide, a high-pressure technique called rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS) has been used to produce the coatings. Fluorinated compounds are often used when producing superhydrophobic coatings due to their intrinsic water repellent properties, but generally these compound do not degrade in nature. Due to this, a wax and a biodegradable polymer have been used as the coating materials in this work.

Two RESS set-ups were used to spray a polymer from solutions of scCO2 and acetone. The first system was based on a continuous flow of the solvent mixture and the polymer particles were collected on silica surfaces. Some of the coatings had superhydrophobic properties and the limitation with this technique was the loss of particles between the nozzle and the surface. In the second set-up, RESS was combined with electrostatic deposition (ED) to improve the particle collection. Different processing parameters were examined and most of the RESS-ED sprayed surfaces were superhydrophobic. This was demonstrated by high contact angles against water, low contact angle hysteresis and low tilt angles at which a water droplet rolls off the surface. It was also shown that the surface structures created when spraying using RESS-ED induced the important two-level roughness that was needed to achieve superhydrophobicity. A semi-continuous process for scaling-up the RESS system when spraying the wax has been developed. Temperature and pressure was investigated to find the highest solubility of the wax in scCO2, and 250 bar and 67 °C resulted in the largest amount of sprayed wax. It was also shown that the system is suitable for spray-coating the wax on different substrates such as glass, paper, aluminium etc. since all of these surfaces showed superhydrophobic properties. The wear resistance of the coatings were examined by different methods. Scratch resistance, vertical compression and the friction between the surface and a finger were analysed. The polymer coated surfaces showed a larger robustness compared with the wax surfaces in the scratch tests. The superhydrophobicity was lost for the wax coatings exposed to compression loads above 59 kPa and in the frictions test, one finger stroke over the coating destroyed the surface roughness. Finally, the wax surfaces were investigated as coating barriers to protect steel from corrosion. The superhydrophobic coating was stable up to 10 days before corrosion of the steel started.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. ix, 54 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2014:38
Keyword
superhydrophobic coatings, polymer, wax, supercritical carbon dioxde, RESS
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-151305 (URN)978-91-7595-268-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-10-10, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RMA08-0044
Note

QC 20140922

Available from: 2014-09-22 Created: 2014-09-17 Last updated: 2015-03-24Bibliographically approved
2. Hydrophobic and superhydrophobic coatings for corrosion protection of steel
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrophobic and superhydrophobic coatings for corrosion protection of steel
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Since metals in general, and steels in particular, are vital construction materials in our modern society, the corrosion protection of said materials is of great importance, both to ensure safety and to reduce costs associated to corrosion. Previously, chromium (VI) and other harmful substances were effectively used to provide corrosion protection to steel, but since their use was heavily regulated around year 2000, no coating has yet been developed that, in a fully satisfactory manner, replaces their corrosion protective properties.In this thesis, the use of hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surface coatings as part of corrosion protective coating systems has been studied. Since the corrosion mechanism relies on the presence of water to take place, the use of a superhydrophobic coating to retard the penetration of water to an underlying metal surface is intuitive. The evaluation of corrosion protective properties of the hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces was performed using mainly contact angle measurements and electrochemical measurements in severely corrosive 3 wt% NaCl water solution.First, the differences in corrosion protection achieved when employing different hydrophobic wetting states were investigated using a model alkyl ketene dimer wax system. It was found that superhydrophobicity in the Lotus state is superior to the other states, when considering fairly short immersion times of less than ten days. This is due to the continuous air film that can form between such a superhydrophobic surface and the electrolyte, which can retard the transport of electrolyte containing corrosive ions to the metal surface to the point where the electrical circuit is broken. Since corrosion cannot occur unless an electrical current is flowing, this is a very efficient way of suppressing corrosion.An air layer on an immersed superhydrophobic surface is, however, not stable over long time, and to investigate long-term corrosion protection using hydrophobic coatings a polydimethylsiloxane formulation containing hydrophobic silica nanoparticles was developed. This system showed enhancement in corrosion protective properties with increasing particles loads, up until the point where the particle load instead causes the coating to crack (at 40 wt%). The conclusion is that the hydrophobicity of the matrix and filler, in combination with the elongatedivdiffusion path supplied by the addition of particles, enhanced the corrosion protection of the underlying substrate.To further understand how hydrophobicity and particle addition affect the corrosion protective properties of a coating a three layer composite coating system was developed. Using this coating system, consisting of a polyester acrylate base coating, covered by TiO2 particles (with diameter < 100 nm) and finally coated with a thin hexamethyl disiloxane coating, it was found that both hydrophobicity and particles are needed to reach a great enhancement in corrosion protective properties also for this system.

Abstract [sv]

Eftersom metaller, och då särskilt stål, är viktigta konstruktionsmaterial i vårt moderna samhälle är korrosionsskydd av stor betydelse, både för att garantera säkerhet och för att minska kostnader som uppkommer i samband med korrosion. Tidigare har sexvärt krom och andra skadliga ämnen använts för att på ett effektivt sätt skydda stål från korrosion, men efter att deras användning kraftigt reglerades runt år 2000 har ännu ingen beläggning utvecklats som helt kan ersätta krombeläggningarna med avseende på funktion.I denna avhandling har hydrofoba och superhydrofoba ytbeläggningar och deras möjliga applikation som en del av ett korrosionsskyddande beläggningssystem studerats. Eftersom korrosionsmekanismen är beroende av närvaron av vatten, är användandet av en superhydrofob beläggning för att fördröja transporten av vatten till den underliggande metallytan intuitiv. De korrosionsskyddande egenskaperna hos superhydrofoba ytbeläggningar utvärderades här främst med hjälp av kontaktvinkelmätningar och elektrokemisk utvärdering i korrosiv lösning bestående av 3 vikts% NaCl i vatten.Först undersöktes skillnaden i korrosionsskydd som uppnås vid användandet av ytbeläggningar med olika hydrofoba vätningsregimer med hjälp av ett modellsystem bestående av ett alkylketendimer vax. Det konstaterades att superhydrofobicitet i Lotusregimen är överlägset bättre än de andra hydrofoba vätningsregimerna, i alla fall när man ser till relativt korta exponeringstider, typiskt mindre än tio dagar. Detta beror på att den kontinuerliga luftfilm som kan bildas på en sådan typ av superhydrofob yta kan minska transporten av elektrolyt (som innehåller korrosiva joner) till metallytan till den grad att den elektriska kretsen bryts. Eftersom korrosion inte kan ske utan en sluten elektrisk krets är detta ett mycket effektivt sätt att förhindra korrosion från att ske.Ett luftskikt på en superhydrofob yta nedsänkt i vatten är dock inte stabilt under lång tid. För att undersöka möjligheten till korrosionsskydd under längre tid med hjälp av hydrofoba beläggningar utvecklades en hydrofob ytbeläggning bestående av polydimetylsiloxan och hydrofoba nanopartiklar av kiseldioxid. Detta system visade en förbättring av korrosionsskyddet vid ökat partikelinnehåll upp till den koncentration (40 wt%) där i stället sprickbildning i ytbeläggningen observerades. Från detta system kunde slutsatsen dras att matrisens och partiklarnasvihydrofobicitet i kombination med den längre diffusionsvägen som partiklarna orsakade förbättrade korrosionsskyddet av den underliggande metallen.För att ytterligare förstå hur hydrofobicitet och partikeltillsatser påverkar en ytbeläggnings korrosionsskyddande egenskaper har dessutom ett treskikts kompositbeläggningssystem utvecklats. Genom att använda detta beläggningssystem, som består av en basbeläggning av polyesterakrylat, ett lager TiO2-partiklar (med en diameter på <100 nm) slutligen belagt med ett tunt ytskikt bestående av hexametyldisiloxan så kunde slutsatsen dras att både en hydrofob matris och partiklar behövs för att nå en markant förbättring av ytbeläggningens korrosionsskyddande egenskaper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. xvi, 57 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2015:54
Keyword
Superhydrophobic coating, hydrophobic coating, corrosion protection, contact angles, electrochemical measurements, surface characterization
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175405 (URN)978-91-7595-703-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-11-06, F3, Lindstedsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , 2005:0073/13
Note

QC 20151015

Available from: 2015-10-15 Created: 2015-10-14 Last updated: 2015-10-15Bibliographically approved

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Wågberg, LarsPan, Jinshan

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