Atom probe tomography characterizations of high nickel, low copper surveillance RPV welds irradiated to high fluences
2013 (English)In: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 437, no 1/3, 107-115 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The Ringhals Units 3 and 4 reactors in Sweden are pressurized water reactors (PWRs) designed and supplied by Westinghouse Electric Company, with commercial operation in 1981 and 1983, respectively. The reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) for both reactors were fabricated with ring forgings of SA 508 class 2 steel. Surveillance blocks for both units were fabricated using the same weld wire heat, welding procedures, and base metals used for the RPVs. The primary interest in these weld metals is because they have very high nickel contents, with 1.58 and 1.66 wt.% for Unit 3 and Unit 4, respectively. The nickel content in Unit 4 is the highest reported nickel content for any Westinghouse PWR. Although both welds contain less than 0.10 wt.% copper, the weld metals have exhibited high irradiation-induced Charpy 41-J transition temperature shifts in surveillance testing. The Charpy impact 41-J shifts and corresponding fluences are 192 degrees C at 5.0 x 10(23) n/m(2) (>1 MeV) for Unit 3 and 162 degrees C at 6.0 x 10(23) n/m(2) (>1 MeV) for Unit 4. These relatively low-copper, high-nickel, radiation-sensitive welds relate to the issue of so-called late-blooming nickel-manganese-silicon phases. Atom probe tomography measurements have revealed similar to 2 nm-diameter irradiation-induced precipitates containing manganese, nickel, and silicon, with phosphorus evident in some of the precipitates. However, only a relatively few number of copper atoms are contained within the precipitates. The larger increase in the transition temperature shift in the higher copper weld metal from the Ringhals R3 Unit is associated with copper-enriched regions within the manganese-nickel-silicon-enriched precipitates rather than changes in their size or number density.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013. Vol. 437, no 1/3, 107-115 p.
Reactor pressure vessel, irrdiation effects, atom probe, microstructure, surveillance
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject SRA - Energy
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-136347DOI: 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2013.01.312ISI: 000319172200018ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84874832781OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-136347DiVA: diva2:675833
QC 201403202013-12-042013-12-042014-03-20Bibliographically approved