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Concentration of ammonium from municipal wastewater using ion exchange process
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
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2013 (English)In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 329, 93-102 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The scope of this study is concentration of ammonium from municipal wastewater using ion exchange process. Four types of ion exchange materials were tested in packed bed columns, namely strong and weak acid cation exchange resins and natural and synthetic zeolites. In total 23 runs of saturation and regeneration were done using synthetic wastewaters of different kinds and pretreated municipal wastewater. Due to its high exchange capacity and fast regeneration strong acid cation exchange resin was found to be the most suitable for ammonium concentration under condition that selectivity of ammonium removal is not of a main concern and it allows concentrating ammonium from 27 to 580mg NH4-N/L. If selective ammonium removal is required, natural zeolite should be used instead. Regeneration with 0.17M HCl and 0.17-0.51M NaCl was tested and suitability of different regenerants for different technologies of spent regenerant treatment was discussed. It was shown that electric conductivity measurements can be used for detection of breakthrough and estimation of ammonium concentration in outflow from an ion exchange column. Breakthrough curve fitting with Thomas and Adams-Bohart models was performed which gave information about the maximum exchange capacity of materials and kinetics of ion exchange.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 329, 93-102 p.
Keyword [en]
Ammonium, Concentration process, Electric conductivity, Ion exchange, Wastewater
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-136096DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2013.09.009ISI: 000326614100013Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84884942760OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-136096DiVA: diva2:676149
Note

QC 20131205

Available from: 2013-12-05 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Ammonium removal from municipal wastewater with application of ion exchange and partial nitritation/Anammox process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ammonium removal from municipal wastewater with application of ion exchange and partial nitritation/Anammox process
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater with application of Anammox process offers cost reduction, especially if it is combined with maximal use of organic content of wastewater for biogas production. In this study a new technology is proposed, which is based on ammonium concentration from municipal wastewater by ion exchange followed by biological removal of ammonium from the concentrated stream by partial nitritation/Anammox process. In experiments on ammonium concentration four the most common ion exchange materials were tested in packed bed columns, namely strong and weak acid cation exchange resins, natural and synthetic zeolites. Experiments with synthetic wastewaters with different content and municipal wastewater showed that strong acid cation resin is the most suitable for ammonium concentration from municipal wastewater due to its high exchange capacity and fast regeneration. Since NaCl was used for regeneration of ion exchange materials, spent regenerant had elevated salinity. Experiments with activity determination showed that both nitritation and Anammox bacteria are inhibited by NaCl, where effect on Anammox bacteria is more severe. Adaptation of partial nitritation/Anammox biomass was studied using two strategies of salinity increase and it was possible to adapt the biomass to NaCl content of 10-15 g/L. The technology was tested in batch mode using strong acid cation resin for ammonium concentration from pretreated municipal wastewater, and partial nitritation/Anammox biomass for nitrogen removal from concentrated stream. It was shown that it is possible to remove 99.9% of ammonium from wastewater with ion exchange while increasing concentration of ammonium in spent regenerant by 18 times. Up to 95% of nitrogen from spent regenerant was removed by partial nitritation/Anammox biomass in batch tests. Moreover, possibilities of integrati on of the technology into municipal wastewater treatment technology, challenges and advantages were discussed.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. x, 30 p.
Series
TRITA-LWR. LIC, ISSN 1650-8629 ; 2014:01
Keyword
wastewater; nitrogen removal; ion exchange; nitritation; Anammox
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-141487 (URN)978-91-7595-010-5 (ISBN)
Presentation
2014-03-04, V3, Teknikringen 76, KTH, Stockholm, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140219

Available from: 2014-02-19 Created: 2014-02-17 Last updated: 2016-11-25Bibliographically approved
2. Anammox-based systems for nitrogen removal from mainstream municipal wastewater
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anammox-based systems for nitrogen removal from mainstream municipal wastewater
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater with the application of deammonification process offers an operational cost reduction, especially if it is combined with a maximal use of organic content of wastewater for biogas production. In this thesis, two approaches for integration of the deammonification process into the municipal wastewater treatment scheme were studied.

The first approach is based on ammonium concentration from municipal wastewater by ion exchange followed by biological removal of ammonium from the concentrated stream by deammonification process. Experiments with synthetic and real municipal wastewater showed that strong acid cation resin is suitable for ammonium concentration due to its high exchange capacity and fast regeneration. Since NaCl was used for regeneration of ion exchange materials, spent regenerant had elevated salinity. The deammonification biomass was adapted to NaCl content of 10-15 g/L by step-wise salinity increase. The technology was tested in batch mode with 99.9 % of ammonium removal from wastewater with ion exchange and up to 95 % of nitrogen removal from spent regenerant by deammonification process.

The second studied approach was to apply anammox process to low-concentrated municipal wastewater in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) system without a pre-concentration step. After a 5 months period of transition to mainstream wastewater the pilot plant was operated during 22 months and stable performance of one-stage deammonification was proven. Clear advantage of IFAS system was shown. The highest stable nitrogen removal efficiency of 70 % and a nitrogen removal rate of 55 g N/(m3·d) was reached. Moreover, the influence of operation conditions on competition between ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was studied by literature review, batch tests and continuous pilot plant operation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 53 p.
Series
TRITA-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 2017:01
Keyword
Wastewater, Nitrogen removal, Ion exchange, Deammonification, Anammox, Mainstream
National Category
Water Treatment
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202960 (URN)978-91-7729-317-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-04-06, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170309

Available from: 2017-03-09 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2017-03-09Bibliographically approved

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