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In-Cylinder Flow Pattern Evaluated with Combustion Image Velocimetry, CIV, and CFD Calculations during Combustion and Post-Oxidation in a HD Diesel Engine
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In-cylinder flow pattern was evaluated during diesel combustion and post-oxidation in a heavy duty optical engine and compared with CFD calculations. In this work the recently developed optical method combustion image velocimetry (CIV) is evaluated. It was used for extracting the flow pattern during combustion and post-oxidation by tracing the glowing soot clouds in the cylinder. The results were compared with CFD sector simulation on the same heavy duty engine geometry. Load was 10 bar IMEP and injection pressure was varied in two steps together with two different swirl levels. The same variations were done in both the optical engine and in the CFD simulations.

The main results in this work show that the CIV method and the CFD results catch the same flow pattern trends during combustion and post-oxidation. Evaluation of the CIV technique has been done on large scale swirl vortices and compared with the CFD results at different distances from the piston bowl surface. The flow field according to CIV is shown to resemble the flow quite near the optical piston bowl surface during the diffusion combustion period in the CFD results. During the after-oxidation period, the observed CIV data coincide with mean velocity data from CFD, calculated on the total depth from cylinder head to piston surface. Both methods indicate that the in-cylinder flow is strongly deviating from solid body rotation during the diffusion flame and after-oxidation period. This deviation is not so significant before injection. During the after-oxidation period, the deviation from solid body rotation increases with injection pressure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013.
Series
SAE Technical Paper, 2013-24-0064
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-136975DOI: 10.4271/2013-24-0064Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84890334405OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-136975DiVA: diva2:677617
Conference
SAE 11th International Conference on Engines & Vehicles; Capri, Napoli, Italy, September 15-19, 2013
Note

QC 20131210

Available from: 2013-12-10 Created: 2013-12-10 Last updated: 2013-12-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. In-cylinder Flow Characterisation of Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Using Combustion Image Velocimetry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-cylinder Flow Characterisation of Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Using Combustion Image Velocimetry
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In-cylinder flow in diesel engines has a large impact on combustion and emission formation. In this work, the flow is characterised with a new measurement method called combustion image velocimetry (CIV). This technique is used to explain how airflow introduced during induction affects soot emissions and interacts with injection pressures up to 2500 bar. The CIV measurements enable flow analysis during the combustion and post-oxidation phases. The flow velocities inside the cylinder of a heavy duty optical engine, was measured with a crank angle (CA) resolution of 0.17° at injection pressures of 200–2500 bar and up to nearly full load (20 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP)), were investigated with this method. The flow field results were combined with optical flame temperature and soot measurements, calculated according to Planck’s black body radiation theory.

At the high injection pressures typical of today’s production standard engines and with rotational in-cylinder flow about the cylinder axis, large deviations from solid-body rotational flow were observed during combustion and post-oxidation. The rotational flow, called swirl, was varied between swirl number (SN) 0.4 and 6.7. The deviation from solid-body rotational flow, which normally is an assumption made in swirling combustion systems, formed much higher angular rotational velocities of the air in the central region of the piston bowl than in the outer part of the bowl. This deviation has been shown to be a source for turbulent kinetic energy production, which has the possibility to influence soot burn-out during the post-oxidation period.

The measured CIV data was compared to Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) CFD simulations, and the two methods produced similar results for the flow behaviour. This thesis describes the CIV method, which is closely related to particle image velocimetry (PIV). It was found in this work that the spatial plane in the cylinder evaluated with CIV corresponds to a mean depth of 3 mm from the piston bowl surface into the combustion chamber during combustion. During the post-oxidation phase of combustion, the measured spatial plane corresponds to a mean value of the total depth of the cylinder. The large bulk flow that contributes to the soot oxidation is thereby captured with the method and can successfully be analysed. The link between changes in in-cylinder flow and emissions is examined in this work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. vi, 97 p.
Series
TRITA-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2013:17
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-136978 (URN)978-91-7501-963-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-01-15, Q1, Osquldasväg 4, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20131210

Available from: 2013-12-10 Created: 2013-12-10 Last updated: 2014-01-20Bibliographically approved

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