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Nanofabrication of tungsten zone plates with integrated platinum central stop for hard X-ray applications
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0152-6533
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Engineering Material Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4889-4210
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2014 (English)In: Microelectronic Engineering, ISSN 0167-9317, Vol. 116, 40-43 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a nanofabrication process for producing tungsten zone plates used in hard X-ray applications including a method of integrating a high-energy absorbing central stop with the optic. Tungsten zone plates are structured with electron-beam lithography and subsequent reactive ion etching. The central stop originates from a platinum wire. It is cut to dimension by focused ion beam etching, and afterwards attached to the zone plate center using ion beam induced deposition of platinum. A zone plate with integrated central stop will simplify alignment in hard X-ray scanning microscope arrangements where the 0th order light must be eliminated. The focusing performance of the zone plate device was investigated by scanning coherent diffraction imaging (ptychography) at 8 keV photon energy. We could demonstrate a diffraction-limited focus size of 53 nm diameter full-width-at-half-maximum. Tungsten zone plates with integrated central stops show promising results for use in hard X-ray microscopes at high-brightness facilities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 116, 40-43 p.
Keyword [en]
Hard X-ray microscopy, Platinum, Ptychography, Tungsten, X-ray diffractive optics, Zone plates
National Category
Other Physics Topics
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-137224DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2013.10.011ISI: 000331161300008ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84892374286OAI: diva2:678422
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Swedish Research CouncilEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 226716

QC 20140228

Available from: 2013-12-12 Created: 2013-12-12 Last updated: 2015-01-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Nanofabrication of Zone Plates for Hard X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanofabrication of Zone Plates for Hard X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This Thesis describes the development of hard X-ray zone plates intended for focusing radiation at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). XFELs provide unprecedented brightness and zone plates which are put in the intense X-ray beam are at risk of being damaged. Therefore, it is crucial to perform damage tests in order to design zone plates which can survive the XFEL beam.

Zone plates are diffractive nanofocusing optics and are regularly used at high brightness synchrotron beamlines in the soft and hard X-ray regime. The resolution of a zone plate is proportional to its outermost zonewidth and thus depends on the smallest feature that can be fabricated. State-of-the-art nanofabrication processes developed for zone plates are able to produce zonewidths down to 10 nm. However, for hard X-rays, the zone plates need to be of sufficient thickness to efficiently focus the radiation. Thus, the limit in the fabrication of hard X-ray zone plates lies in the high aspect-ratios. This Thesis describes two processes developed for high aspect-ratio nanostructuring. The first process uses tungsten as diffractive material. Aspect-ratios up to 1:15 have been accomplished. Furthermore, a mounting method of a central stop directly on the zone plate is also presented. The other fabrication process uses diamond, in which aspect-ratios of 1:30 have been demonstrated. Both processes rely on thin-film deposition techniques, electron-beam lithography, and reactive ion etching. Thanks to the materials’ excellent thermal properties these types of zone plates should be suitable for XFEL applications. Tungsten and diamond diffractive optics have been tested at an XFEL at Stanford (LCLS), and damage investigations were performed in order to determine the maximum fluence that could be imposed on the optics before degradation occured. The conclusion of these damage tests is that tungsten and diamond diffractive optics can survive the XFEL beam and could potentially be used in beamline experiments relying on nanofocused X-ray beams. Finally in this Thesis, characterization of two zone plates using an interferometer is presented, where it is also shown that the interferometric method can be used to pin-point beamline instabilities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. xiii, 69 p.
TRITA-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2014:77
X-ray optics, Zone plates, Nanofabrication, X-ray free-electron lasers
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-158121 (URN)978-91-7595-406-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-01-23, FA31, AlbaNova Universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)

QC 20150112

Available from: 2015-01-12 Created: 2014-12-22 Last updated: 2015-01-12Bibliographically approved

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