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Evacuating Crowds Using Active Intervention: Modelling and Verification by Simulation.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
2013 (English)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]



Department of Mathematics

Division of Optimization and Systems Theory

Bachelor of Science in Engineering

Evacuating Crowds: Modelling and Verication by Simulation using Active


by Victor

Tingstrom and Karl Nyman

The ability to simulate crowds during emergency evacuations could help designers of

buildings and crowd management systems to decrease the number of casualties in e.g.

res. With the use of computer simulations of crowd evacuation, costly and possibly

unethical real-world experiments can be avoided.

The proposed crowd evacuation model extends Helbing's Social Force Model with obstacle

and collision avoidance. It also includes elements of cognition such as impatience

and an exit search algorithm. Two active intervention measures are evaluated: The

inclusion of leaders and exit signs.

Simulations verify that the model produces realistic human behaviour. They also imply

that exit signs decrease evacuation time. Leaders decrease evacuation time but above a

threshold ratio of leaders among evacuees, improvement is non-existent. The threshold

ratio is dependent on the number of evacuees in a room and varies between 10% and

30% for 20 to 30 evacuees. It is important to assess in which context the model is used

in order for the assumptions to be valid. Results should be interpreted qualitatively

because quantitative verication has not been made.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. , 75 p.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-137440OAI: diva2:679062

A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements

for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Engineering.


Fullfilled work completed at

Department of Mathematics

Division of Optimization and Systems Theory

Available from: 2013-12-13 Created: 2013-12-13 Last updated: 2013-12-13Bibliographically approved

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Kandidatexamensrapport Victor Tingström och Karl Nyman.(837 kB)232 downloads
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