Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Spot with Paths, an Interactive Diagram with a Low Complexity Isovist Algorithm
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design. (Spatial Analysis and Design)
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design. (Spatial Analysis and Design)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7089-4244
Aedas R&D. (CDR)
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of Ninth International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Young Ook Kim, Hoon Tae Park, Kyung Wook Seo, Seoul: Sejong University Press , 2013, 062: 1-062: 13 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In an often quoted sentence of his 1976 book “The Architecture of Form”, Lionel March drew a clear distinction between science, interested in extant forms, and design, which initiates novel forms. The theories, methods, measures and diagrams of space syntax have often developed following this first more scientific scheme, and they have been concerned with the analysis of existing or projected buildings and cities.This emphasis on analysis is evident in current software, algorithms and measures. But is it possible to think of a space syntax not only as a way of analysing existing situations or validating future designs, but as a form of actually generating architecture?

In our work we have used space syntax at the early stages of the design process, not so much as a form of analysis, but as a sort of architectural diagram. The shift of space syntax into a generative role has demanded a set of conceptual and technical adjustments: from the emphasis on graphic language and visualisation to the need for fast feedback and interaction.

In this paper we present an example from our work, and the framework (technical and methodological) necessary to produce it. The digital diagram we have created deals with the design of a new hospital ward. It represents some basic problems we have encountered in the relation of patients, staff and architecture, which are incorporated into the software through 3 basic interactive entities: isovists (from patients positions), the circulation paths of hospital staff (with a calculation of their visibility relations to the patients), and the arrangement of walls to form rooms. All these 3 entity types are interdependent: isovists depend of walls and positions and the visualisation of staff paths depends on the patients isovists. They are also editable in real time, that is, walls, isovists and paths can be added,deleted, or moved, and the effects of any of these actions visualised at once.

This fast interaction and feedback require efficient algorithms and data structures. In particular we have implemented an algorithm for the calculation of isovists or visibility polygons with a complexity dependent of the size (in terms of visible vertices) of the visibility polygon, rather than being a function of the size of the boundary. This allow us to calculate visibility polygons in real time irrespective of the size of the boundary, may this be a building or a whole city. Our method implements an idea by Åsmund Izaki for the calculation of isovists and visibility graphs, based in the use of an underlying triangulation data structure for the search of all visible vertices from a point. Besides the general interest of our approach to the use of space syntax in a generative rather than in an analytical way, we believe that the algorithms for the calculation of visibility polygons or isovists can find application also into existing space syntax software, improving its performance, and in some cases opening the possibility for an extension of its role from forms of analysis to generative ones.

Our software has been developed using the C++ programming language, and it makes extensive use of Open Source libraries such as CGAL, Dime, Qt and Boost. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Seoul: Sejong University Press , 2013. 062: 1-062: 13 p.
Keyword [en]
Isovist, Visibility Polygon, Low Complexity, Algorithm, Interactive Software, Design Application, Paths.
National Category
Architecture
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-137938Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85006274864ISBN: 978-89-86177-21-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-137938DiVA: diva2:679804
Conference
9th International Space Syntax Symposium, Seoul October31 November 3, 2013
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 242497
Note

QC 20140103

Available from: 2013-12-16 Created: 2013-12-16 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Program Matters: From Drawing to Code
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Program Matters: From Drawing to Code
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Whether on paper, on site or mediating between both, means for reading and writing geometry have been central to architecture: the use of compasses and rulers, strings, pins, stakes or plumb-lines enabled the analysis and reproduction of congruent figures on different surfaces since antiquity, and from the renaissance onwards, the consistent planar representation of three-dimensional shapes by means of projective geometry. Tacitly through practice, or explicitly encoded in classical geometry, the operational syntaxes of drawing instruments, real or imaginary, have determined the geometric literacies regulating the production and instruction of architecture. But making marks on the surfaces of paper, stone or the ground has recently given way to the fundamentally different sequential operations of computers as the material basis of architectural inscription. Practices which have dominated architecture since antiquity make little sense in its current reading and writing systems. 

This thesis examines technologies of digital inscription in a search for literacies equivalent to those of drawn geometry. It particularly looks at programming as a form of notation in close correspondence with its material basis as a technology, and its effects on architecture. It includes prototypes and experiments, graphics, algorithms and software, together with their descriptions and theoretical analyses. While the artefacts and texts respond to the different forms, styles, interests and objectives specific to the fields and contexts in which they have originated, their fundamental purpose is always to critique and propose ways of writing and reading architecture through programming, the rationale of the research and practice they stem from. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 102 p.
Series
TRITA-ARK. Akademisk avhandling, ISSN 1402-7461 ; 2017:4
Keyword
program, algorithm, code, drawing, geometry, notation, score, literacy, writing systems, diagram, formalism, sequence, cybernetics, materiality, research programme, archeological, archive, discourse analysis, practice-based, artefact, bricolage
National Category
Architecture
Research subject
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-218462 (URN)978-91-7729-586-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-01-12, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council FormasEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Note

QC 20171129

Available from: 2017-11-29 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

Spot With Paths(710 kB)247 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 710 kBChecksum SHA-512
a24a1dc9ea671210cb50a3826f0bd87fdbd650a43ddd5adf2262dbfea3a2d870944957d5f1978ccd6b7ac889da992607db2349d34887f6d71fdc043e9a993dfe
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

ScopusConference proceedings

Authority records BETA

Koch, Daniel

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Miranda Carranza, PabloKoch, Daniel
By organisation
Urban Design
Architecture

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 247 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 186 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf