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Space-Time Dynamics of Crime in Transport Nodes
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5302-1698
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
2014 (English)In: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, ISSN 0004-5608, E-ISSN 1467-8306, Vol. 104, no 1, 131-150 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article assesses space-time variations of crime rates in underground stations. Drawing on assumptions from time geography, routine activity principles, and defensible space theory, the study investigates daily, weekly, and seasonal variations of crime at underground stations in the Swedish capital, Stockholm. Data from extensive field work at the stations was combined with crime records and passenger flow to test whether stations' environmental attributes affect crime at different times. Geographical information systems, spatial statistic techniques, and modeling underpin the methodology used in the study. Findings show that crimes tend to happen more often in the evening, at night, on holidays, and on weekends. There is also evidence of seasonal variations of crime. In the winter, stations with social disturbance and signs of deterioration show high levels of crime, whereas in the summer, offenses are concentrated in stations nearby alcohol selling outlets. Stations with hiding spots are often targeted for crime during daily peak hours, whereas during holidays, crowded stations and those with alcohol selling outlets attract more criminal activities. Results suggest that the role of the stations' environment on crime causation varies over timean important fact for safety interventions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 104, no 1, 131-150 p.
Keyword [en]
cluster analysis, GIS, offenses, space-time dynamics
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-139511DOI: 10.1080/00045608.2013.846150ISI: 000328247600008ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84890554315OAI: diva2:687417

QC 20140114

Available from: 2014-01-14 Created: 2014-01-14 Last updated: 2014-02-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Crime Clusters and Safety in Underground Stations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Crime Clusters and Safety in Underground Stations
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The objective of the thesis is to explore ways to assess safety in an urban context and intransport nodes. The thesis is composed of articles which aim at assessing whether safety levels vary within a city, at a public transportation network, particularly at stations, and finally making suggestions to increase safety in these environments. The analysis makes use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), statistical techniques and combines several different data sources. Fieldwork supports the data sources by presenting an investigation of the current environment at and around the underground stations in Stockholm. Regression models were used to assess the (strength) relationships between levels of crime and the socialand physical environment at underground stations.

Findings show that urban crime in Stockholm municipality concentrates in stable hotspots, however, varying by type of crime, in different places at different times. A majority of the hotspots were located close to underground stations. The environment at underground stations has a significant impact on the crime levels at these transport nodes. For instance, low guardianship opportunities were related with higher crime rates, while well-illuminated and open stations showed lower crime rates. An open lay-out would provide better opportunities for guardianship, which in turn may decrease crime levels. The surrounding socio-economic composition of neighborhoods and the physical and social environment surrounding the stations affected crime levels similarly. For instance, mixed land-uses surrounding the station could be linked to increased crime rates. However, crime levels showed a varying distribution over time and space. Different stations showed different levels of crime at different times of the day, moreover, this also showed to be depended on crime type. For instance, theft wouldconcentrate at central stations at peak hours, when it is most crowded. The results include suggestions for policymakers and organizations dealing with urban safety, planning and public transportation, such as police, transportation companies and municipal planners.

The results suggest that crime interventions should take into account the dynamic patterns of crime and adopt a more holistic approach taking into account the station and its surroundings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. 42 p.
, TRITA-KTH-CEFIN-DT, ISSN 1654-9376 ; 09
Safety, urban crime, crime distribution, spatial-temproal patterns, underground stations, public transport, environmental attributes, crime prevention
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Real Estate and Construction Management
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-141168 (URN)978-91-87111-95-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-02-28, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Safety in Transport Nodes: The Influence of Environmental Attrivutes on Crime and Perceived Safety

QC 20140211

Available from: 2014-02-11 Created: 2014-02-10 Last updated: 2014-02-11Bibliographically approved

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Ceccato, VaniaUittenbogaard, Adriaan Cornelis
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