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Analysis and Control Aspects of a PMSynRel Drive in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Application
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis deals withmodeling and control of an electric drive equipped with a permanentmagnet assisted synchronous reluctance (PMSynRel) machine for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle application.

In the first part of the thesis, a special use of the PMSynRel machine in consideration, known as an integrated charger concept, is investigated. The integrated charger feature allows using the PMSynRel machine as a part of the vehicle’s on-board charging system when charging the battery from the grid. A finite-element based analysis is performed providing important insights into the machine operation during the charging process. Dynamic models are developed that facilitate the controller development and the estimation of the efficiency during charging.

In the second part of the thesis, position sensorless control of the PMSynRel drive when applied in an automotive application is considered and analyzed thoroughly. First, a fundamental-excitation based rotor-position estimation technique is investigated. The study shows that the impact of current dynamics on the resulting torque dynamics has to be considered in some very demanding applications. Second, focus is put on signalinjection based sensorless control methods. Impacts of nonlinearities, such as magnetic saturation, cross-saturation and inductance spatial harmonics, on sensorless control performance are investigated and methods to improve the sensorless control quality are summarized and presented. An approach to determine the feasible region for operating sensorless at low-speeds without directly measuring the differential inductances is proposed. For the PMSynRel drive in consideration, the achievable maximum torque is limited when operating sensorless following the maximum-torque-per-ampere (MTPA) current reference trajectory at low-speeds. An optimization approach is therefore proposed which extends the output torque when operating sensorless while still maintaining a relatively high efficiency. To initialize the sensorless control correctly from standstill, the impact of the saturated magnetic bridges in the rotor is also investigated.

Finally, torsional drive-train oscillations and active damping schemes are considered. An off-vehicle setup for implementing and evaluating different active damping schemes is proposed. Of particular interest for sensorless operation in automotive applications, the impact of slow speed estimation on the possibility to achieve good active damping control is investigated and a design approach that allows the implementation of an active damping scheme using estimated speed is suggested.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , x, 60 p.
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2013:046
Keyword [en]
Active damping control, electric drive, electric vehicle, hybrid electric vehicle, integrated charger, permanent-magnet assisted synchronous reluctance machine, position estimation, sensorless control
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-139592ISBN: 978-91-7501-966-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-139592DiVA: diva2:687740
Public defence
2014-01-22, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140114

Available from: 2014-01-15 Created: 2014-01-15 Last updated: 2014-01-15Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Transient modeling of an integrated charger for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transient modeling of an integrated charger for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle
Show others...
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2011 14th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE 2011, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, 1-10 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper considers a permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance (PMSynRel) machine for an integrated charger application for use in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The integrated charger functionality means that the machine is also used when the battery is charged from the electrical grid. A finite element model (FEM) is presented from which a transient model of the complete system is derived. The resulting model can be used for simulating and tuning the algorithms needed to synchronize the machine to the electrical grid and controlling the charging process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2011
Keyword
Battery charger, Flux model, Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), Multiphase drive, Simulation
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-61519 (URN)000308003503086 ()2-s2.0-80053522541 (Scopus ID)978-90-75815-15-3 (ISBN)
Conference
2011 14th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE 2011. Birmingham. 30 August 2011 - 1 September 2011
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20120119

Available from: 2012-01-17 Created: 2012-01-17 Last updated: 2014-09-24Bibliographically approved
2. Analysis of a deeply saturated sensorless PMSynRel drive for an automotive application
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of a deeply saturated sensorless PMSynRel drive for an automotive application
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2011-14th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE 2011), IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, 1-10 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an method of mapping feasible region for a sensorless control PMSynRel drive using the resulting position error signal. Thanks to the rotor anisotropy, the rotor position can be detected at low speeds by means of injecting high frequency voltage, either a pulsating voltage vector in the estimated synchronous frame or a rotating vector in the stator frame, on top of the fundamental excitation. However, the resulting position error signal is degraded and distorted by magnetic saturation (including crosssaturation) and spatial inductance harmonics. Therefore, the feasible region is used to find the stable operating points. Instead of mapping the inductances, which is time consuming, position error signal is used to map the feasible sensorless control region. A prediction method of the maximum position estimation error is also presented by taking the spatial inductance harmonics into account. After that, some techniques are presented to compensate the cross-saturation and slot harmonic effects in order to improve the sensorless control quality. Additionally, it is shown how saturation in the rotor bridges affects the initial polarity detection required during startup.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2011
Keyword
Sensorless control, Permanent magnet motor, Synchronous motor, Hybrid Electric
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-101410 (URN)000308003503082 ()2-s2.0-80053544521 (Scopus ID)978-1-61284-167-0 (ISBN)
Conference
Power Electronics and Applications (EPE 2011), Aug. 30 2011-Sept. 1 2011
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20121016

Available from: 2012-10-16 Created: 2012-08-28 Last updated: 2014-12-10Bibliographically approved
3. Torque dynamics in sensorless PMSM drives
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Torque dynamics in sensorless PMSM drives
2012 (English)In: Electrical Machines (ICEM), 2012 XXth International Conference on, IEEE , 2012, 2273-2278 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In automotive drivetrains used in hybrid electric vehicles, the transmission connecting the electric machine(s) and the combustion engine often introduce non linear phenomena such as gear play and backlash. These non-ideal effects can result in drivetrain oscillations which, in turn, can be mitigated by a controller manipulating the torque reference of the electric machine. If a permanent-magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) is operated without using a position sensor (sensorless), the resulting torque dynamics (from the torque reference to the shaft torque) is different compared to the situation when the rotor position is known. Hence, it is desirable to know the torque dynamics for PMSMs operating sensorless when the drivetrain torque oscillation controller is tuned. This paper presents a number of models, evaluated using simulations, describing the torque dynamics of PMSM drives with and without the use of a position sensor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Keyword
current control, Electric drives, field-oriented control, permanent-magnet synchronous motors, sensorless control
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104525 (URN)10.1109/ICElMach.2012.6350198 (DOI)000333806702033 ()2-s2.0-84870823577 (Scopus ID)978-146730142-8 (ISBN)
Conference
20th International Conference on Electrical Machines, ICEM 2012; Marseille; 2 September 2012 through 5 September 2012
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20130122

Available from: 2012-11-05 Created: 2012-11-05 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved
4. Low-Speed Sensorless Control With Reduced Copper Losses for Saturated PMSynRel Machines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-Speed Sensorless Control With Reduced Copper Losses for Saturated PMSynRel Machines
2013 (English)In: IEEE transactions on energy conversion, ISSN 0885-8969, E-ISSN 1558-0059, Vol. 28, no 4, 841-848 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Permanent-magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance (PMSynRel) machines are generally well suited for sensorless operation at all speeds since the rotor topology possesses a magnetic saliency. However, magnetic saturation can result in a vanishing differential saliency which renders sensorless control at certain operating points difficult (or even impossible) at low speed. In this paper, an optimization procedure, based on results from finite-element (FEM)-based simulations, is proposed. As output, current reference trajectories are obtained in which copper losses are kept at minimum, while the capability for sensorless control is still maintained. The results from the FEM-based simulations are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental results. For the experimental prototype in consideration, the torque limit when operating sensorless at low speed is increased substantially from below 45% to around 95% of its rated value with only slightly increased copper losses. Additionally, the impact of position-dependent harmonics on the magnetic cross saturation (affecting the steady-state position estimation error) is found to be substantial. This highlights that this spatial variation should be taken into consideration for accurate prediction of performance during sensorless operation even if the winding of the machine is of the conventional distributed type.

Keyword
Electric drive, magnetic saturation, permanentmagnet-assisted synchronous reluctance machine (PMSynRel), p osition estimation, sensorless control, signal injection
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-126089 (URN)10.1109/TEC.2013.2279303 (DOI)000327642800006 ()2-s2.0-84889101225 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20131025

Available from: 2013-08-19 Created: 2013-08-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
5. Off-Vehicle Evaluation of Active Oscillation Damping Schemes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Off-Vehicle Evaluation of Active Oscillation Damping Schemes
2013 (English)In: 2013 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, ECCE 2013, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Torsional drivetrains oscillations is a well known problem in electrical or hybrid electric drivetrains which may greatly influence the driving comfort. An experimental testing setup that can be used to design and evaluate active oscillation damping schemes is proposed in this paper. Instead of in-vehicle test, the drivetrain transmission is emulated from mathematic models, executed by a servo drive which is connected to the physical electrical drive system. The proposed setup functions as a hardware-in-the-loop simulator and can be easily adjusted to simulate any drivetrains without additional cost.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-126111 (URN)10.1109/ECCE.2013.6646765 (DOI)000345216900093 ()2-s2.0-84891044632 (Scopus ID)978-147990335-1 (ISBN)
Conference
5th Annual IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exhibition, ECCE 2013; Denver, CO, United States, 15-19 September 2013
Note

QC 20140114

Available from: 2013-08-20 Created: 2013-08-20 Last updated: 2015-01-15Bibliographically approved
6. Damping of Torsional Drive-Train Oscillationsusing a Position Sensorless PMSynRel Drive
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Damping of Torsional Drive-Train Oscillationsusing a Position Sensorless PMSynRel Drive
(English)In: IEEE transactions on energy conversion, ISSN 0885-8969, E-ISSN 1558-0059Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Keyword
Carrier-signal injection, drive-train oscillations, permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance machines, position estimation, position sensorless control.
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-137078 (URN)
Funder
StandUp
Available from: 2013-12-10 Created: 2013-12-10 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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Output format
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