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On the optimal use of industrial-generated biomass residues for polygeneration
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Increasing energy demand as well as climate change concerns call for an analysis and optimization of energy services. Efficient use of energy resources, mitigation of environmental effects and supply an increasing demand are just some of the issues that are relevant nowadays in the energy system. In this regard, worldwide efforts are being made to increase the use of renewable energy and to promote energy efficiency measures in order to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.

Thus, sustainable solutions that take a holistic approach on covering the demands of the society are needed.  The work presented herein addresses the use of industrial derived biomass residues for energy purposes in different contexts. The analysis was focused on: a) different alternatives to use solid palm oil residues in the Colombian mills for energy purposes including services b) the possibilities of implementing biomass-based heat and power plants in the Swedish energy system and their integration with already established biomass processing industries for polygeneration purposes.

The assessment of the palm oil residues consisted on a technical analysis of the possible alternatives for electricity, heat, and biofuels production. For that, a thermodynamic approach was used to evaluate different alternatives.  The assessment of biomass power plant integrated with the Swedish industry considered the thermodynamic, economic and environmental factors associated with certain energy conversion technologies. In this case a multiobjective optimization methodology was used to perform the thermoeconomic analysis. This allowed the evaluation of two contrasting scenarios were polygeneration at industrial level could be suggested: a less economically developed country where environmental policies are limited and industrial energy efficiency has not been implemented and a high income country with energy and environmental policies well established and energy efficiency measures being encouraged.

Results show that the palm oil industry in Colombia has the capacity of being self-sufficient to cover of all their energy needs using the solid residues available. In the case of the thermoeconomic assessment of biomass-based integrated polygeneration plants in Sweden the results indicate that it is feasible to produce power while supplying the process steam required by nearby industries and district heating.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , xx, 100 p.
Series
TRITA-KRV, ISSN 1100-7990 ; 2014:01
Keyword [en]
Polygeneration, Optimization, Palm Oil, Biomass, forest residues, Colombia, Sweden
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-140312ISBN: 978-91-7501-990-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-140312DiVA: diva2:689468
Public defence
2014-02-04, B3, Brinellvägen 23, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, SWE-2005-386Swedish Energy Agency, P30148
Note

QC 20140121

Available from: 2014-01-21 Created: 2014-01-20 Last updated: 2014-01-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Pelletization: an alternative for polygeneration in the palm oil industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pelletization: an alternative for polygeneration in the palm oil industry
2013 (English)In: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, ISSN 2190-6815, Vol. 3, no 3, 213-229 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Agricultural residues continue to attract interest for energy recovery purposes as a renewable, CO2 neutral and increasingly cost-competitive alternative to traditional fossil fuels. Furthermore, some of these residues, like palm oil residues, represent a disposal problem for the processing industries, or they are not used efficiently. Several palm oil mills (POM) lack efficient energy systems and thus there is a considerable potential for improvement. These factors represent a strong driving force for the development of innovative polygeneration plants with combined electricity, heat and refined fuel production based on conversion of solid residues. This paper aims at analyzing the use of agro-industrial residues as fuel. For that, we propose different technology configurations based on the case of a small-scale palm oil mill in Colombia processing 30 tons of fresh fruit bunch per hour. The technology configurations include steam cycles using backpressure turbines, condensing-extraction turbines and also gasification-gas engine cycles in hybrid configurations. The possibilities to produce pellets from the residues from palm oil were also analyzed. The steam cycle base operational parameters were 20 bar and 350 °C. However, more advanced steam conditions (40 bar) were also considered and evaluated. All the analyses performed included a maximum of 60 % of the empty fruit bunch (EFB) produced in the POM for energy purposes due to its value as natural fertilizer in the palm oil plantations. The results show that the POM under study and other POMs that use electricity from the national grid have the capacity of being self-sufficient to cover of all their energy needs using the solid residues available. This means that POMs that currently only generate the required heat for the process can generate the electricity required and in some cases even an excess of energy that could be sold to other users with an adequate use of the residues available. Furthermore, based on the modeling done in Aspen Utilities Planner® it is shown that it is possible to cover the demand of the POM, the required energy demand for EFB preparation included possible pelletization of these residues and even generate an excess of electricity. In several of the configurations, excess electricity generation could be achieved in the range of 0.5–8 MW.

Keyword
Bioenergy, Polygeneration, Palm oil residues, Pellets, EFB
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123159 (URN)10.1007/s13399-013-0075-5 (DOI)
Note

QC 20150624

Available from: 2013-06-03 Created: 2013-06-03 Last updated: 2015-06-24Bibliographically approved
2. Technical polygeneration potential in palm oil mills in Colombia: A case study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technical polygeneration potential in palm oil mills in Colombia: A case study
2013 (English)In: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, ISSN 2213-1388, Vol. 3, 40-52 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Agricultural residues offer the possibility of reducing fossil fuel consumption, increasing energy security, and lowering  greenhouse gas emissions. However, certain residues, like palm oil residues, either represent a disposal problem for the processing industries or they are not used and thus, there is a considerable potential for improvement. These factors represent a strong driving force for the development of innovative polygeneration plants based on solid residues. This paper considers an energy analysis of a Palm Oil Mill (POM) in Colombia processing 30 ton of Fresh Fruit Bunch per hour (FFB/h).  Different heat and power generation options were considered with solid residues as feedstock. These configurations included steam cycles using backpressure or condensing-extraction turbines.  The possibilities to produce pellets from the residues and biodiesel from palm oil were also analyzed.  The steam cycle base operational parameters were 20 bar and 350 °C. More advanced steam conditions (40 bar) were also considered. The results show that it is possible to cover the demand of the POM and the required energy demand for residues preparation including possible pelletization and also biodiesel production. It is possible to obtain an excess of electricity between 0.4 and 3 MW if only residues are used.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keyword
Bioenergy, polygeneration, palm oil residues, biodiesel, palm oil
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123673 (URN)10.1016/j.seta.2013.05.003 (DOI)2-s2.0-84879804175 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Sida Project SWE-2005-386.
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, 2005-386
Note

QC 20130625

Available from: 2013-06-14 Created: 2013-06-14 Last updated: 2016-04-19Bibliographically approved
3. Energy Potential of Coconut and Palm Oil Residues: Selected Case Studies from Latin America and Small Island Developing States
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Potential of Coconut and Palm Oil Residues: Selected Case Studies from Latin America and Small Island Developing States
(English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Agricultural residues continue to attract interest for energy recovery purposes as a renewable, CO2 neutral and increasingly cost competitive alternative to traditional fossil fuels. The possibility of trigeneration in already established industries such as palm oil mills and coconut processing plants is very attractive especially when residues that otherwise represent a disposal problem can be utilized efficiently. Different technological scenarios for the production of electricity, process heat and biodiesel are analyzed using coconut and palm oil residues. Environmental aspects are also included in the analysis. Studies were conducted considering various scenarios to evaluate the feasibility of using these residues for energy purposes. The residues were considered to be combusted directly in steam boilers while steam turbines were used to generate electricity. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of palm oil/coconut oil. The required process heat for palm oil or coconut oil processing as well as the steam required for biodiesel production is supplied by the combustion of the residues.  The results show that palm oil mills/coconut processing industries can be independent of fossil fuels.  Furthermore, they can contribute positively to the energy balance of the communities by helping reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and reducing simultaneously greenhouse gas emissions. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-77973 (URN)
Note

QCR 20160620

Available from: 2012-02-07 Created: 2012-02-07 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
4. Small-scale biomass CHP plants in Sweden and Finland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Small-scale biomass CHP plants in Sweden and Finland
Show others...
2011 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 15, no 9, 4451-4465 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biomass continues to attract much interest as a renewable, low-CO2, and increasingly cost competitive alternative to traditional fossil fuels for heat and/or electric power generation. At the same time, deregulation of electricity markets offer new opportunities for small-scale decentralized power plants (<20 MWe) in an area where traditional centralized technologies mostly dominate. These factors represent a strong driving force for the development of innovative small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants based on biofuels. This paper provides an overview of small-scale CHP with biomass as a fuel. A survey of existing plants in Sweden and Finland is presented, along with an overview of major energy conversion technologies under development. Information is provided related to energy taxation along with an outlook on future prospects.

Keyword
Biomass, Combined heat and power, Small-scale, Low CO2 emissions
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-47883 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.106 (DOI)000298764400025 ()2-s2.0-81955164860 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20150629

Available from: 2011-11-15 Created: 2011-11-15 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
5. Optimization of a Sawmill-Based Polygeneration Plant
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization of a Sawmill-Based Polygeneration Plant
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2013, ASME Press, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Biomass-based fuels have attracted worldwide interest due to their plentiful supply and their environmentally friendly characteristics. In many cases they are still considered waste but for most industries in Sweden, biomass has changed from being simply a disposal problem to become an important part of the energy supply, thanks to the long-term efforts made by the government, researchers and industry, where energy policies have played an important role. However, the amount of power that could be generated from biomass resources is much greater than that which is currently used. To effectively capture this resource requires a new generation of biomass power plants and their effective integration into already existing industrial processes.The implementation of an integrated polygeneration scheme requires the simultaneous consideration of technical, economic and environmental factors to find optimum solutions. With this in mind, a unified modeling approach that takes into account thermodynamic as well as economic and environmental aspects was used. The analysis was done using ASPEN Utilitiesand the MATLAB optimization toolbox. A specific case of a sawmill in Sweden, with an annual capacity of 130’000 m3 of sawn wood, has been analyzed and different options for generating electricity and process heat (for the sawmill and fora district heating network) as well as densified biofuels was analyzed. Optimization was then applied for different configurations and operational parameters. The results show that the sawmill has the capability to not only supply its own energy needs, but also to export from 0.4 to 1MW of electricity to the grid, contribute 5 to 6 MWth of district heating and 20 000 ton/y of biomass pellets. The production of pellets helps to maintain the electricity production throughout the year when the district heating demand is lower. However, the levelized electricity cost is higher than the usual electricity price in the Nordic electricity market and may have difficulty to competing with low-cost electricity sources, such as nuclear energy and hydropower. Inspite of this, polygeneration remains attractive for covering the energy demands of the sawmill and pelletization plant.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ASME Press, 2013
Series
Proceedings of the ASME TurboExpo 2013, GT2013-95844
Keyword
Bioenergy; polygeneration; pellets; wood; sawmill; multiobjective optimization
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123681 (URN)10.1115/GT2013-95844 (DOI)2-s2.0-84890179727 (Scopus ID)978-079185513-3 (ISBN)
Conference
ASME Turbo Expo 2013: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition, GT 2013; San Antonio, Tx; United States
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P-30148
Note

QC 20140116

Available from: 2013-06-14 Created: 2013-06-14 Last updated: 2016-04-19Bibliographically approved
6. Upgrading a biomass-based district heating plant in sweden: a technoeconomic optimization and sensitivity analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Upgrading a biomass-based district heating plant in sweden: a technoeconomic optimization and sensitivity analysis
(English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

District heating systems have contributed with the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by also producing industrial steam, using waste heat from industrial process in the networks and integration of other industrial processes. This paper aims at evaluating the possible upgrading of an existing district heating plant for production of electricity and pellets. The evaluation is carried out by optimizing the alternatives from the economic, thermodynamic and environmental point of view. In order to examine how the design can be optimized, a detailed model of the process has been elaborated using ASPEN Utilities and Matlab optimization toolbox. The parameters of the polygeneration plant have then been varied in order to examine how optimal economic benefit can be extracted from the biomass streams whilst still meeting the fundamental process demands of the industries and heat demand of the community. A multi-objective optimization has been used to investigate the Pareto-optimal trade-offs that exist between low electricity costs and investment cost. The resulting polygeneration plant designs conclude that it is feasible to produce 18 and 25 MW of power while at the same time supplying the process steam required by the nearby industries and district heating for the community. The results also shown that it is feasible to operate the plant more hours per year by producing pellets and  it could be possible to generate additional district heating (up to 25 ton/h of hot water) to cover the demands of a growing community.

Keyword
Bioenergy; polygeneration; district heating; pellets; multiobjective optimization; genetic algorithms
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-140237 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P30148
Note

QCR 20160620

Available from: 2014-01-20 Created: 2014-01-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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