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Velocities in the plume of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
2013 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 118, no 20, 11698-11711 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in the spring of 2010 lasted for 39 days with an explosive phase (14-18 April), an effusive phase (18 April to 4 May) and a phase with renewed explosive activity (5-17 May). Images every 5 s from a camera mounted 34 km from the volcano are available for most of the eruption. Applying the maximum cross-correlation method (MCC) on these images, the velocity structure of the eruption cloud has been mapped in detail for four time intervals covering the three phases of the eruption. The results show that on average there are updrafts in one part of the cloud and lateral motion or downdrafts in another. Even within the updraft part, there are alternating motions of strong updrafts, weak updrafts, and downward motion. These results show a highly variable plume driven by intermittent explosions. The results are discussed in the context of integral plume models and in terms of elementary parcel theory. Key Points Velocities in a volcanic cloud based on analysis of image data from the eruption Velocities in the eruption cloud are inhomogeneous and updrafts intermittent Intermittent updrafts are important for the dynamics and the lofting of ash.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 118, no 20, 11698-11711 p.
Keyword [en]
explosive volcanic eruptions, Eyjafjallajökull, volcanic plumes, Cross correlation methods, Effusive phase, Explosive activity, Lateral motion, Velocity structure, Volcanic clouds, Volcanic eruptions, Volcanic plume, Explosives, Volcanoes, Velocity, explosive volcanism, plume, volcanic ash, volcanic cloud, volcanic eruption, Eyjafjallajokull, Iceland
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-140016DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50876ISI: 000330833600017ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84888196836OAI: diva2:690017
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme

QC 20140122

Available from: 2014-01-22 Created: 2014-01-16 Last updated: 2014-03-06Bibliographically approved

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