Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Secondary Fluids Impact on Ice Rink Refrigeration System Performance
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration. INSA Strasbourg.
2013 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Abstract [en]

Sweden has 350 ice rinks in operation which annually use approximately 1000 MWh each. Therefrigeration system usually accounts for about 43 % of the total energy consumption which is the largestshare of the major energy systems. Besides improving the facilities one-by-one, it is important todistinguish common features that will indicate the potential energy saving possibilities for all ice rinks.More than 97 % of the Swedish ice rinks use indirect refrigeration systems with a secondary fluid.Moreover, the thermo-physical properties of secondary fluids directly impact the heat transfer andpressure drop. Thus, assessing and quantifying their influence on the refrigeration system performance isimportant while estimating the energy saving potential for the ice rinks.A theoretical model as well as two case studies focusing on the importance of the secondary fluid choiceare investigated. The theoretical model calculations are performed assuming the steady-state conditionsand considering a fixed ice rink design independently on the secondary fluid type. Hence, they can becompared on the same basis. According to this theoretical model, the refrigeration efficiency rankingstarting from the best to the worst for secondary fluid is: ammonia; potassium formate; calcium chloride;potassium acetate; ethylene glycol; ethyl alcohol; and propylene glycol. Secondary fluids can be ranked inexactly the same order starting from the lowest to the highest value in terms of the dynamic viscosity. Itwas shown that potassium formate has the best heat transfer properties while ammonia leads to the lowestpressure drops and pumping power. Propylene glycol shows the worst features in both cases. Ammoniaand potassium formate show respectively 5% and 3% higher COP than calcium chloride for typical heatloads of 150 kW. When controlling the pump over a temperature difference ΔT, the existence of theoptimum pump control or optimum flow was highlighted. For common heat loads of 150 kW thisoptimum pump control ΔT is around 2,5 K for calcium chloride while it is around 2 K for ammonia. It isshown that the secondary fluids having laminar flow in the ice rink floor pipes have a larger share in theconvection heat transfer resistance (~20-25 %) than the secondary fluids experiencing turbulent flow (~3%).One of the case studies shows a potential energy saving of 12 % for the refrigeration system whenincreasing the freezing point of the secondary fluid. An energy saving of 10,8 MWh per year was foundfor each temperature degree increase in the secondary fluid freezing point.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. , 152 p.
Keyword [en]
Ice rink, secondary fluid, refrigeration system, thermo-physical properties, heat transfer, pressure drop, model
National Category
Energy Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-140602OAI: diva2:691472
2013-09-06, ETT lab, 15:00 (English)
Available from: 2014-02-12 Created: 2014-01-27 Last updated: 2014-02-12Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

Mazzotti Willem EGI-2013-156MSC - Secondary Fluids Impact on Ice Rink Refrigeration System Performance(15499 kB)128 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 15499 kBChecksum SHA-512
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Mazzotti, Willem
By organisation
Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration
Energy Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 128 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Total: 190 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link