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Fabrication and Characterization of Plasmonic Nanophotonic Absorbers and Waveguides
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. (Nanophotonics)
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Plasmonics is a promising field of nanophotonics dealing with light interaction with metallic nanostructures. In such material systems, hybridizationof photons and collective free-electron oscillation can result in sub-wavelength light confinement. The strong light-matter interaction can be harnessed for,among many applications, high-density photonic integration, metamaterial design, enhanced nonlinear optics, sensing etc. In the current thesis work, we focus on experimental fabrication and characterization of planar plasmonic metamaterials and waveguide structures. The samples are fabricated based on the generic electron beam lithography and characterizations are done with our home-made setups. Mastering and refinement of fabrication techniques as well as setting up the characterization tools have constituted as a majorpart of the thesis work. In particular, we experimentally realized a plasmonic absorber based on a 2D honeycomb array of gold nano-disks sitting on top of a reflector through a dielectric spacer. The absorber not only exhibits an absorption peak which is owing to localized surface plasmon resonance and is insensitive to incidence’s angle or polarization, but also possesses an angle- and polarization-sensitive high-order absorption peak with a narrow bandwidth. We also demonstrated that the strong light absorption in such plasmonic absorbers can be utilized to photothermally re-condition the geometry of gold nanoparticles. The nearly perfect absorption capability of our absorbers promises a wide range of potential applications, including thermal emitter, infrared detectors, and sensors etc. We also fabricated a plasmonic strip waveguide in a similar metal-insulator-metal structure. The strip waveguide has a modal confinement slightly exceeding that of the so-called plasmonic slot waveguide. We further thermally annealed the waveguide. It is observed that the propagation loss at 980 nm has been decreased significantly,which can be attributed to the improvement in gold quality after thermal annealing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , x, 55 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2014:02
Keyword [en]
Nanophotonics, plasmonics, fabrication
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-140844ISBN: 978-91-7501-995-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-140844DiVA: diva2:692751
Public defence
2014-02-27, Sal/hall D, Forum, KTH-ICT, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Note

QC 20140203

Available from: 2014-02-03 Created: 2014-01-31 Last updated: 2014-02-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Influence of latticestructure on metal-insulator-metal plasmonic absorbers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of latticestructure on metal-insulator-metal plasmonic absorbers
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-140871 (URN)
Note

QS 2014

Available from: 2014-02-03 Created: 2014-02-03 Last updated: 2014-02-03Bibliographically approved
2. Honeycomb-lattice plasmonic absorbers at NIR: anomalous high-order resonance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Honeycomb-lattice plasmonic absorbers at NIR: anomalous high-order resonance
2013 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 21, no 18, 20873-20879 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We design, fabricate and characterize a plasmonic honeycomb lattice absorber with almost perfect absorption at 1140 nm over a wide incident angle range. This absorber also possesses a narrow-band, angle-and polarization-dependent high-order resonance in the short-wavelength range, with a bandwidth of 19 nm and angle sensitivity of 3 nm per degree. The nature of this high-order absorption band is analyzed through finite-element simulations. We believe it is due to Bragg coupling of the incident light to the backward-propagating surface plasmon polariton through the periodic modulation of the structure. Such fine absorption bands can find applications in plasmonic sensors and spectrally selective thermal emitters.

Keyword
Electromagnetic wave polarization, Honeycomb structures, Surface plasmon resonance
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-132209 (URN)10.1364/OE.21.020873 (DOI)000324867100053 ()2-s2.0-84884575313 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20131024

Available from: 2013-10-24 Created: 2013-10-24 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Plasmonic analog of microstrip transmission line and effect of thermal annealing on its propagation loss
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plasmonic analog of microstrip transmission line and effect of thermal annealing on its propagation loss
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 21, no 2, 1639-1644 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We fabricated a plasmonic analog of the microwave microstrip transmission line and measured its propagation loss before and after thermal annealing. It is found that its propagation loss at 980 nm wavelength can be reduced by more than 50%, from 0.45 to 0.20 dB/μm, after thermal annealing at 300 °C. The reduction in loss can be attributed to the improved gold surface condition and probably also to the change in the metal's inner structure. Less evident loss reduction is noticed at 1550 nm, which is owing to extremely small portion of the modal electric field located in the metal regions at this wavelength.

Keyword
Annealing, Electric fields, Microstrip lines, Plasmons
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-116128 (URN)10.1364/OE.21.001639 (DOI)000315989500032 ()2-s2.0-84874076489 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20130320

Available from: 2013-01-15 Created: 2013-01-15 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Photothermal reshaping of gold nanoparticles in a plasmonic absorber
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Photothermal reshaping of gold nanoparticles in a plasmonic absorber
Show others...
2011 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 19, no 15, 14726-14734 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We experimentally demonstrate that a metamaterial nanostructure can have a localized heating response owing to plasmonic resonances in the near-infrared wavelength range (from 1.5 to 2 mu m). With a broadband nanosecond-pulse light, the temperature of composing gold particles in the nanostructure can be easily increased to over 900K within only several nanoseconds, resulting in re-shaping of the particles. The photothermal effect is elaborated with finite-element based numerical simulations. The absorption resonance can in principle be tailored with a great freedom by choosing appropriate metamaterial parameters. The light-induced heating in an artificial metamaterial can be potentially used for all-optical acute temperature tuning in a micro-environment, which may open new frontiers especially in nanotechnology and biotechnology.

Keyword
OPTICAL-PROPERTIES, FEMTOSECOND, NANORODS, HEAT, NANOSHELLS, PARTICLES, ABLATION, METALS
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-37264 (URN)10.1364/OE.19.014726 (DOI)000292877600104 ()2-s2.0-79960539232 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20110810

Available from: 2011-08-10 Created: 2011-08-08 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
5. Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared
Show others...
2011 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 109, no 7, 074510- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We experimentally demonstrate the absorption properties of designed metamaterial absorbers in the near-infrared wavelength regime. For the rectangular-shaped case, we demonstrate its polarization dependent absorbance at various incident angles. For each polarization, the absorbance is insensitive to the incident angle (up to 60 degrees) and a maximum absorbance of 0.95 is obtained. Of particular interest we experimentally observe an absorption peak corresponding to a high-order resonance at 60 degrees with an absorbance of 0.68 excited by the TM polarization. For the square-shaped case, we show its polarization-independent absorption property. A maximum absorbance around 0.65 is achieved at normal incidence and it remains high for incidence angles up to 50 degrees.

Keyword
NEGATIVE-INDEX METAMATERIALS
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33714 (URN)10.1063/1.3573495 (DOI)000289949000141 ()2-s2.0-79955373807 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20110520Available from: 2011-05-20 Created: 2011-05-16 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
6. Nanosecond Photothermal Effects in Plasmonic Nanostructures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanosecond Photothermal Effects in Plasmonic Nanostructures
2012 (English)In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 6, no 3, 2550-2557 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Photothermal effects in plasmonic nanostructures have great potentials in applications for photothermal cancer therapy, optical storage, thermo-photovoltaics, etc. However, the transient temperature behavior of a nanoscale material system during an ultrafast photothermal process has rarely been accurately investigated. Here a heat transfer model is constructed to investigate the temporal and spatial variation of temperature in plasmonic gold nanostructures. First, as a benchmark scenario, we study the light-induced heating of a gold nanosphere in water and calculate the relaxation time of the nanosphere excited by a modulated light. Second, we investigate heating and reshaping of gold nanoparticles in a more complex metamaterial absorber structure induced by a nanosecond pulsed light. The model shows that the temperature of the gold nanoparticles can be raised from room temperature to >795 K in just a few nanoseconds with a low light luminance, owing to enhanced light absorption through strong plasmonic resonance. Such quantitative predication of temperature change, which Is otherwise formidable to measure experimentally, can serve as an excellent guideline for designing devices for ultrafast photothermal applications.

Keyword
thermodynamic, photothermal, metamaterial absorber, nanoparticle reshaping
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-93651 (URN)10.1021/nn2050032 (DOI)000301945900071 ()2-s2.0-84859135597 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20120423

Available from: 2012-04-23 Created: 2012-04-23 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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