Modelling air―water flows in bottom outlets of dams
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
If air is entrained in a bottom outlet of a dam in an uncontrolled way, the resulting air pockets may cause problems such as blowback, blowout and loss of discharge capacity. In order to provide guidance for bottom outlet design and operation, this study examines how governing parameters affect air entrainment, air-pocket transport and de-aeration and the surrounding flow structure in pipe flows. Both experimental and numerical approaches are used.
Air can be entrained into the bottom outlet conduit due to vortex formation at the intake if the intake submergence is not sufficient. The influent of the intake entrance profiles and channel width on the critical submergence were studied in the experiment.
The experimental study was performed to investigate the incipient motion of air pockets in pipes with rectangular and circular cross sections. The critical velocity is dependent on pipe slope, pipe diameter, pipe roughness and air-pocket volume. If the pipe is horizontal, air removal is generally easier in a rectangular pipe than in a circular pipe. However, if the pipe is downward-inclined, air removal is easier in a circular pipe.
When a bottom outlet gate opens, air can become entrained into the conduit in the gate shaft downstream of the gate. Using FLUENT software, the transient process of air entrainment into a prototype bottom outlet during gate opening is simulated in three dimensions. The simulations show in the flow-pattern changes in the conduit and the amount of air entrainment in the gate shaft. The initial conduit water level affects the degree of air entrainment. A de-aeration chamber is effective in reducing water surface fluctuations at blowout.
High-speed particle image velocimetry (HSPIV) were applied to investigate the characteristics of the flow field around a stationary air pocket in a fully developed horizontal pipe flow. The air pocket generates a horseshoe vortex upstream and a reverse flow downstream. A shear layer forms from the separation point. Flow reattachment is observed for large air pockets. The air―water interface moves with the adjacent flow. A similarity profile is obtained for the mean streamwise velocity in the shear layer beneath the air pocket.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , xiv, 32 p.
TRITA-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 2014:02
Air pocket, Air entrainment, Bottom outlet, Critical velocity, Critical submergence, CFD, Experiment, Vortex, PIV, Two-phase air―water flow
Research subject Land and Water Resources Engineering; Civil and Architectural Engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-141182ISBN: 978-91-7595-017-4OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-141182DiVA: diva2:695501
2014-02-28, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Pfister, Michael, Dr.
Yang, James, ProfessorWörman, Anders, Professor
QC 201402112014-02-112014-02-112014-02-11Bibliographically approved
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