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The role of roads on hydrological response: Modeling and assessment for Swedish watersheds
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0378-837X
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Understanding the role of road networks in alteration of hydrological responses is crucial for maintaining the accessibility and durability of road infrastructures. Road construction is one of the most common man made disturbances to a landscape. However, still the quantitative role of road topographical and geo-morphological properties on the hydrological response

of storms in catchments is only partially understood. The aim of this study was to use new methods to estimate and quantify the flood hazard probability with reference to the most influential physical catchment descriptors and road characteristics. In addition physical based modelling was used to estimate the effect of road topography on the hydrological responses of watersheds to storms with different intensities. A simple method was developed and discussed to address the most susceptible locations to flooding along the roads. Multivariate statistical analysis (PLS) employed to quantify the flood risk probability in the road-stream crossings concerning the correlation between the quantities of the physical catchment descriptors and occurrence/absence of flooding. The most influential factors in describing the probability of flooding along the roads were topographic wetness index, soil properties, road density and channel slopes. A detailed study of simulated flow duration curves showed differences between 20 watersheds for three different storms based on a digital elevation data with and without roads. An increase in peak flow and reduced delay occurred with increased storm intensity. However, the impact of the roads was much smaller and only possible to identify by detailed examination of statistical descriptors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , x, 33 p.
Series
TRITA-LWR. LIC, ISSN 1650-8629 ; 3024:02
Keyword [en]
GIS, Roads, Flooding, HEC-HMS, Sweden
National Category
Environmental Management
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-141354ISBN: 978-91-7595-026-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-141354DiVA: diva2:696443
Presentation
2014-02-25, Lecture room V3, Teknikringen 72, KTH, Stockholm, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140214

Available from: 2014-02-14 Created: 2014-02-13 Last updated: 2014-02-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A method for mapping flood hazard along roads
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A method for mapping flood hazard along roads
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 133, 69-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A method was developed for estimating and mapping flood hazard probability along roads using road and catchment characteristics as physical catchment descriptors (PCDs). The method uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to derive candidate PCDs and then identifies those PCDs that significantly predict road flooding using a statistical modelling approach. The method thus allows flood hazards to be estimated and also provides insights into the relative roles of landscape characteristics in determining road-related flood hazards. The method was applied to an area in western Sweden where severe road flooding had occurred during an intense rain event as a case study to demonstrate its utility. The results suggest that for this case study area three categories of PCDs are useful for prediction of critical spots prone to flooding along roads: i) topography, ii) soil type, and iii) land use. The main drivers among the PCDs considered were a topographical wetness index, road density in the catchment, soil properties in the catchment (mainly the amount of gravel substrate) and local channel slope at the site of a road-stream intersection. These can be proposed as strong indicators for predicting the flood probability in ungauged river basins in this region, but some care is needed in generalising the case study results other potential factors are also likely to influence the flood hazard probability. Overall, the method proposed represents a straightforward and consistent way to estimate flooding hazards to inform both the planning of future roadways and the maintenance of existing roadways.

Keyword
Physical catchment descriptors (PCDs), GIS, PCA, PLS, Probability of flood hazard
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-140636 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.11.032 (DOI)000331341300009 ()2-s2.0-84890829473 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 201400130

Available from: 2014-01-30 Created: 2014-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Predicting locations sensitive to flash flooding along forest roads considering physical catchment descriptors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predicting locations sensitive to flash flooding along forest roads considering physical catchment descriptors
2013 (English)In: Comprehensive Flood Risk Management: Research for Policy and Practice, Taylor & Francis Group, London, 2013, 215-222 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Roads influence the hydrologic response of a watershed as they affect the water regime.This is important especially during extreme precipitation events in critical spots of roads and watersheds.This study suggests a method to analyze watershed characteristics and road descriptors, so-called PhysicalCatchment Descriptors (PCDs), for prediction of flood risk along roads. The method was developed andtested in a Geographical Information System using topographical, geological and road data from an areain W Sweden having experienced severe road flooding during an intensive rain event.The results show that there are two categories of intrinsic descriptors which are useful for prediction of criticalspots prone to flooding along roads in a watershed: (a) watershed-related descriptors and (b) road-relateddescriptors. Analysis of superimposed combinations of these two categories of descriptors can be used foridentification and pre-evaluation of critical spots with high risk of flooding in watersheds containing roads.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, London: , 2013
Keyword
physical catchment descriptors; road hydrology; flooding; road geomorphology; GIS
National Category
Environmental Management
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-141352 (URN)978-0-415-62144-1 (ISBN)
Conference
Frans Klijn & Timo Schweckendiek
Note

QC 20140225

Available from: 2014-02-13 Created: 2014-02-13 Last updated: 2014-02-25Bibliographically approved
3. The impact of roads on hydrological responses: A case study in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of roads on hydrological responses: A case study in Sweden
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A method engaged for simulating and assessing the alterations excreted by road topography within watersheds and estimating the road effects on hydrologic responses. The method uses Geographic Information System (GIS) to allocate and eliminate roads from the elevation data. HEC-HMS was used to model surface and near surface hydrological responses of watersheds with roads and without roads in response to three storms with different intensities. A detailed study of the simulated flow duration curves showed differences between 20 watersheds for three different storms based on a digital elevation data with and without roads. To compare flow duration curves, L-moment ratios were calculated and their variation compared. An increase in peak flow and reduced delay occurred with increased storm intensity. Variations of the L-moment ratios were larger in larger watersheds. However, the impact of the roads was much smaller and only possible to identify by detailed examination of statistical descriptors. The results are useful to gain a better estimating of the effect of road topography in hydrological processes and responses especially in high storm intensities.

Keyword
Road topography; HEC-HMS; Flow Duration Curves; L-moment ratios.
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-141353 (URN)
Note

QS 2014

Available from: 2014-02-13 Created: 2014-02-13 Last updated: 2016-05-12Bibliographically approved

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