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Assembly of microsystems for optical and fluidic applications
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9327-2544
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This thesis addresses assembly issues encountered in optical and fluidic microsystem applications.

In optics, the first subject concerns the active alignment of components in optical fibersystems. A solution for reducing the cost of optical component assembly while retaining submicron accuracy is to integrate the alignment mechanism onto the optical substrate. A polymer V-shaped actuator is presented that can carry the weight of the large components - on a micromechanical scale - and that can generate movement with six degrees of freedom.

The second subject in optics is the CMOS-compatible fabrication of monocrystalline silicon micromirror arrays that are intended to serve as CMOS-controlled high-quality spatial light modulators in maskless microlithography systems. A wafer-level assembly method is presented that is based on adhesive wafer bonding whereby a monocrystalline layer is transferred onto a substrate wafer in a CMOS-compatible process without needing bond alignment.

In fluidics, a hybrid assembly method is introduced that combines two separately micromachined structures to create hotwire anemometers that protrude from a surface with minimum interference with the air flow. The assembled sensor enables one to make accurate time-resolved measurements of the wall shear stress, a quantity that has previously been hard to measure with high time resolution. Also in the field of hotwire anemometers, a method using a hotwire anemometer array is presented for measuring the mass flow, temperature and composition of a gas in a duct.

In biochemistry, a bio-analysis chip is presented. Single nucleotide polymorphism scoring is performed using dynamic allele-specific hybridization (DASH). Using monolayers of beads, multiplexing based on single-bead analysis is achieved at heating rates more than 20 times faster than conventional DASH provides.

Space and material e±ciency in packaging are the focus of the other two projects in fluidics. The first introduces an assembly based on layering conductive adhesives for the fabrication of miniature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The fuel cells made with this low-cost approach perform among the best of their type to date. The second project concerns a new cross-flow microvalve concept. Intended as a step towards the mass production of large-flow I/P converters, the silicon footprint area is minimized by an out-of-plane moving gate and in-plane, half-open pneumatic channels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2005. , xiv, 70 p.
Series
Trita-ILA, ISSN 0281-2878 ; 0501
Keyword [en]
Applied mechanics, microsystem technology, micromachining, assembly, active alignment, BCB
Keyword [sv]
Teknisk mekanik
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-120ISBN: 91-7283-958-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-120DiVA: diva2:6991
Public defence
2005-02-11, Kollegiesalen, Valhallavägen 79, Stockholm, 14:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101019Available from: 2005-02-09 Created: 2005-02-09 Last updated: 2010-10-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Hybrid-mounted micromachined aluminum hotwires for wall shear-stress measurements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid-mounted micromachined aluminum hotwires for wall shear-stress measurements
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2005 (English)In: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 14, no 2, 254-260 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we present a micromachined metal hotwire anemometer sensor for use in wall shear-stress measurements. We describe its design and fabrication. A novel hybrid assembly method has been developed to make it possible to measure close to the surface without contacting leads interfering with the flow. Experimental results illustrate the behavior and characteristics of this sensor.

Keyword
aluminum, anemometers, assembly, hotwire, microassembly, microsensors, wall shear stress
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14670 (URN)10.1109/jmems.2004.839029 (DOI)000228308600009 ()2-s2.0-18844373064 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Characteristics of a hot-wire microsensor for time-dependent wall shear stress measurements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characteristics of a hot-wire microsensor for time-dependent wall shear stress measurements
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2003 (English)In: Experiments in Fluids, ISSN 0723-4864, E-ISSN 1432-1114, Vol. 35, no 3, 240-251 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hot-wire microsensors for the purpose of measuring the instantaneous velocity gradient close to a wall were designed and their characteristics were evaluated. The sensors were made using MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) technology, which permits the fabrication of various microgeometrical configurations with high precision and good repeatability. The design is based on estimates of the heat rates from the sensor wire to the air, through the supports, and to the wall. Several hot-wire configurations were fabricated with wires positioned in the range 50-250 mum from the wall. Requirements for the design and details of the fabrication methodology are outlined. The hot-wire microsensors were calibrated and tested in a flat-plate boundary layer with and without pressure gradients and were found to have good steady-state characteristics. In addition, the developed sensors were used for preliminary studies of transitional phenomena and turbulence, and the sensors were found to have a good time-dependent response as well.

Keyword
dynamic-response, viscous sublayer, skin-friction, voltage-perturbation, spatial-resolution, film probes, anemometer, flow, velocity, turbulence
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-22831 (URN)10.1007/s00348-003-0624-y (DOI)000185458500003 ()
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-10 Created: 2010-08-10 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Implementation of a hotwire array sensor for fluid property analysis via flow velocity distribution measurements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementation of a hotwire array sensor for fluid property analysis via flow velocity distribution measurements
(English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Keyword
hotwire anemometry, constant temperature anemometry, hotwire array, fluid properties, temperature sensor, velocity profile
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25353 (URN)
Note
QS 20120328Available from: 2010-10-19 Created: 2010-10-19 Last updated: 2012-03-28Bibliographically approved
4. Arrays of monocrystalline silicon micromirrors fabricated using CMOS compatible transfer bonding
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arrays of monocrystalline silicon micromirrors fabricated using CMOS compatible transfer bonding
2003 (English)In: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 12, no 4, 465-469 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we present CMOS compatible fabrication of monocrystalline silicon micromirror arrays using membrane transfer bonding. To fabricate the micromirrors, a thin monocrystalline silicon device layer is transferred from a standard silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer to a target wafer (e.g., a CMOS wafer) using low-temperature adhesive wafer bonding. In this way, very flat, uniform and low-stress micromirror membranes made of monocrystalline silicon can be directly fabricated on top of CMOS circuits. The mirror fabrication does not contain any bond alignment between the wafers, thus, the mirror dimensions and alignment accuracies are only limited by the photolithographic steps. Micromirror arrays with 4 x 4 pixels and a pitch size of 16 mum x 16 mum have been fabricated. The monocrystalline silicon micromirrors are 0.34 mum thick and have feature sizes as small as 0.6 mum. The distance between the addressing electrodes and the mirror membranes is 0.8 mum. Torsional micromirror arrays are used as spatial light modulators, and have potential applications in projection display systems, pattern generators for maskless lithography systems, optical spectroscopy, and optical communication systems. In principle, the membrane transfer bonding technique can be applied for integration of CMOS circuits with any type of transducer that consists of membranes and that benefits from the use of high temperature annealed or monocrystalline materials. These types of devices include thermal infrared detectors, RF-MEMS,IS devices, tuneable vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) and other optical transducers.

Keyword
adhesive bonding, CMOS compatible, membrane transfer bonding, micromirror, monocrystalline silicon, SLM, spatial light modulator, design
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-22732 (URN)10.1109/jmems.2003.815833 (DOI)000184649700008 ()
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-10 Created: 2010-08-10 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
5. Adhesive copper films for an air-breathing polymer electrolyte fuel cell
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adhesive copper films for an air-breathing polymer electrolyte fuel cell
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2005 (English)In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 144, no 1, 113-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A design for an air-breathing and passive polymer electrolyte fuel cell is presented. Such a type of fuel cell is in general promising for portable electronics. In the present design, the anode current collector is made of a thin copper foil. The foil is provided with an adhesive and conductive coating, which firstly tightens the hydrogen compartment without mask or clamping pressure, and secondly secures a good electronic contact between the anode backing and the current collector. The cathode comprises a backing, a gold-plated stainless steel mesh and a current collector cut out from a printed circuit board. Three geometries for the cathode current collector were evaluated. Single cells with an active area of 2 cm(2) yielded a peak power of 250-300 MW cm(-2) with air and pure H-2 in a complete passive mode except for the controlled flow of H-2. The cells' response was investigated in steady state and transient modes.

Keyword
polymer, fuel cell, breathing, adhesive, copper, silicon-wafer, fabrication, design, performance, technology
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14823 (URN)10.1016/j.jpowsour.2004.12.048 (DOI)000229705800013 ()2-s2.0-18844400608 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
6. Robust, large-deflection, in-plane thermal polymer V-shaped actuators
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Robust, large-deflection, in-plane thermal polymer V-shaped actuators
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25379 (URN)
Note
QC 20101019Available from: 2010-10-19 Created: 2010-10-19 Last updated: 2010-10-19Bibliographically approved
7. Genotyping by dynamic heating of monolayered beads on a microheated surface
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genotyping by dynamic heating of monolayered beads on a microheated surface
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2004 (English)In: Electrophoresis, ISSN 0173-0835, E-ISSN 1522-2683, Vol. 25, no 21-22, 3712-3719 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

 A miniaturized bead-based dynamic allele-specific hybridization (DASH) approach for sing le-nucleotide polymorphism analysis is presented. Chips with integrated heater and temperature sensors for open-surface DNA analysis were microfabricated. Microcontact printing using a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp was employed to create monolayers of immobilized beads on the surface of the chip. This chip allows fast, well-controllable temperature ramping. The temperature distribution was homogeneous over the entire heater area. All three possible variants of an SNP site of a synthesized oligonucleotide were accurately scored using the bead-based DASH approach. Our assay has a nonoptimized temperature ramping rate of 4degreesC-6degreesC/min compared to earlier reported values of 2degreesC-3degreesC/min, thereby reducing the total analysis time by a factor of 2. Reliable DASH measurement data from areas as small as 12 x 13 mum was achieved. Our bead-based DASH approach has enabled a dramatic volume reduction and is a step towards developing a cost-effective high-throughput DASH method on arrays of single beads.

Keyword
beads, dynamic allele-specific hybridization, microcontact printing, microheater, miniaturization, single-nucleotide polymorphism
National Category
Medical Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5011 (URN)10.1002/elps.200406065 (DOI)000225679000021 ()2-s2.0-10944219819 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100916 20110915

Available from: 2005-04-01 Created: 2005-04-01 Last updated: 2017-04-26Bibliographically approved
8. Out-of-Plane Knife-Gate Microvalves for Controlling Large Gas Flows
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Out-of-Plane Knife-Gate Microvalves for Controlling Large Gas Flows
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2006 (English)In: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 15, no 5, 1281-1288 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper considers design issues for microvalves for large gas flow control. It introduces out-of-plane knife-gate microvalves as a novel design concept and a proportional microvalve concept for pressure control applications. The design of three different actuator-gate configurations and first prototypes are presented. The first valve prototypes feature thermal silicon-aluminum bimorph actuators and the pressure-flow performance per chip area of the demonstrator valve presented is greatly increased using out-of-plane actuation and an out-of-plane orifice. The characterization of the actuators and of the pressure-flow performance is presented. The prototype valve allows for a flow change of Delta Q = 3.4 standard liters per minute (SLPM) at a pressure change of Delta P = 95 kPa (P-in = 196.3 kPa, P-out = 101.3 kPa) on an active chip area of only 2.3 x 3.7 mm(2).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2006
Keyword
Engineering, Electrical & Electronic; Engineering, Mechanical
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11827 (URN)10.1109/JMEMS.2006.880279 (DOI)000241410600027 ()2-s2.0-33749984576 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC20100727

Available from: 2010-01-04 Created: 2010-01-04 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
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  • asciidoc
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