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Simple Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth Process as a Strategy for Photonic Integration on Silicon
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
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2014 (English)In: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, ISSN 1077-260X, E-ISSN 1558-4542, Vol. 20, no 4, 8201407- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we propose a strategy to achieve monolithic integration of III-Vs on Si for photonic integration through a simple process. By mimicking the SiO2/Si/SiO2 waveguide necessary to couple light from the gain medium on its top, we adopt a similar to 2 mu m thick silicon dioxide mask for epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) of InP on Si. The ELOG InP layer as wells as the subsequently grown quantum wells (similar to 1. 55 mu m) have been analyzed by photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy and found to have high optical quality and very good interface. The studies are strategically important for a monolithic platform that holds great potential in addressing the future need to have an integrated platform consisting of both III-Vs and Si on same chip.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 20, no 4, 8201407- p.
Keyword [en]
Monolithic integration of III-Vs on Si, integrated photonics, III-V lasers on Si, ELOG
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-141954DOI: 10.1109/JSTQE.2013.2294453ISI: 000330317900027Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84957883633OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-141954DiVA: diva2:699639
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

QC 20140228

Available from: 2014-02-28 Created: 2014-02-27 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. New Methods in the growth of InP on Si and Regrowth of Semi-insulating InP for Photonic Devices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New Methods in the growth of InP on Si and Regrowth of Semi-insulating InP for Photonic Devices
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis addresses new methods in the growth of indium phosphide on silicon for enabling silicon photonics and nano photonics as well as efficient and cost-effective solar cells. It also addresses the renewal of regrowth of semi-insulating indium phosphide for realizing buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers with high power and wall plug efficiency for sensing applications.

As regards indium phosphide on silicon, both crystalline and polycrystalline growth methods are investigated. The crystalline growth methods are: (i) epitaxial lateral overgrowth to realize large area InP on Si, for silicon photonics (ii) a modified epitaxial lateral overgrowth method, called corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth, to obtain indium phosphide/silicon heterointerface for efficient and cost effective solar cells and (iii) selective growth of nanopyramidal frusta on silicon for nanophotonics. The polycrystalline growth method on silicon for low cost solar cell fabrication has been realized via (i) phosphidisation of indium oxide coating synthesized from solution chemistry and (ii) phosphidisation cum growth on indium metal on silicon. All our studies involve growth, growth analysis and characterization of all the above crystalline and polycrystalline layers and structures.

After taking into account the identified defect filtering mechanisms, we have implemented means of obtaining good optical quality crystalline layers and structures in our epitaxial growth methods. We have also identified feasible causes for the persistence of certain defects such as stacking faults. The novel methods of realizing indium phosphide/silicon heterointerface and nanopyramidal frusta of indium phosphide on silicon are particularly attractive for several applications other than the ones mentioned here.

Both the polycrystalline indium phosphide growth methods result in good optical quality material on silicon. The indium assisted phosphidisation cum growth method normally results in larger grain size indium phosphide than the one involving phosphidisation of indium oxide. These two methods are generic and can be optimized for low cost solar cells of InP on any flexible substrate.

The method of regrowth of semi-insulating indium phosphide that is routinely practiced in the fabrication of buried heterostructure telecom laser has been implemented for quantum cascade lasers. The etched ridges of the latter can be 6-15 µm deep, which is more than 2-3 times as those of the former. Although this is a difficult task, through our quick and flexible regrowth method we have demonstrated buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers with an output power up to 2. 5 W and wall plug efficiency up to 9% under continuous operation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. xi, 84 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2014:10
National Category
Engineering and Technology Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145375 (URN)978-91-7595-157-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-06-12, Sal E, Forum, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140523

Available from: 2014-05-23 Created: 2014-05-19 Last updated: 2014-12-18Bibliographically approved
2. High Quality III-V Semiconductors/Si Heterostructures for Photonic Integration and Photovoltaic Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Quality III-V Semiconductors/Si Heterostructures for Photonic Integration and Photovoltaic Applications
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis deals with one of the promising strategies to monolithically integrate III-V semiconductors with silicon via epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) technology and is supported by extensive experimental results. The aimed applications are light sources on silicon for electronics-photonics integration and cost effective high efficiency multijunction solar cells.

The work focusses on the growth of III-V semiconductors consisting of indium phosphide (InP) and its related alloys on silicon primarily because of the bandgaps that these offer for the aimed applications. For this purpose, we make use of the epitaxial growth technique called hydride vapour phase epitaxy and exploit its near equilibrium operation capability to achieve primarily ELOG of high quality InP as the starting material on patterned InP(seed)/silicon wafer. The InP/InGaAsP layers are grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy.

Different pattern designs are investigated to achieve high quality InP over a large area of silicon by ELOG to realise lasers. First, nano patterns designed to take advantage of aspect ratio trapping of defects are investigated. Despite substantial defect filtering insufficient growth area is achieved. To achieve a larger area, coalescence from multiple nano openings is used. Shallowly etched InP/InGaAsP based microdisk resonators fabricated on indium phosphide on silicon achieved by this method have shown whispering gallery modes. However, no lasing action is observed partly due to the formation of new defects at the points of coalescence and partly due to leakage losses due to shallow etching. To overcome these limitations, a new design mimicking the futuristic monolithic evanescently coupled laser design supporting an efficient mode coupling and athermal operation is adopted to yield large areas of ELOG InP/Si having good carrier transport and optical properties. Microdisk resonators fabricated from the uniformly obtained InP/InGaAsP structures on the ELOG InP layers have shown very strong spontaneous luminescence close to lasing action. This is observed for the first time in InP/InGaAsP laser structures grown on ELOG InP on silicon.

A newly modified ELOG approach called Corrugated ELOG is also developed. Transmission electron microscopy analyses show the formation of abrupt interface between InP and silicon. Electrical measurements have supported the linear Ohmic behaviour of the above junction. This proof of concept can be applied to even other III-V compound solar cells on silicon. This allows only thin layers of expensive III-V semiconductors and cheap silicon as separate subcells for fabricating next generation multijunction solar cells with enhanced efficiencies at low cost. A feasible device structure of such a solar cell is presented. The generic nature of this technique also makes it suitable for integration of III-V light sources with silicon and one such design is proposed.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. ix, 61 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610
National Category
Nano Technology Telecommunications Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-153946 (URN)978-91-7595-289-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-10-31, SAL A, Electrum, Isafjordsgatan 22, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20141010

Available from: 2014-10-10 Created: 2014-10-10 Last updated: 2014-10-10Bibliographically approved

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Lourdudoss, Sebastian

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