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Fully Printed Chipless RFID Tags towards Item-Level Tracking Applications
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

An ID generating circuit is unquestionably the core of a chipless RFID tag. For convenience of printing process and cost consideration, the circuit should be kept as simple as possible. Based on the cognition, an 8-bit time-domain based ID generating circuit that merely consists of a ML and eight capacitors was offered, and implemented on photo-paper substrates via inkjet printing process. In addition to the experimental measurements, the circuit was also input into circuit simulators for cross-validation. The good agreement between simulations and measurements is observed, exhibiting the tag technical feasibility. Besides of low cost, the tag has wide compatibility with current licensed RFID spectrum, which will facilitate the future deployment in real applications.

Compared   to  time-domain   based  chipless   tags,  frequency   signatures   based chipless RFID tags are expected to offer a larger coding capacity. As a response, we presented a 10-bit frequency-domain based chipless RFID tag. The tag composed of ten configurable LC resonators was implemented on flexible polyimide substrate by using  fast  toner-transferring  process.  Field  measurements  revealed  not  only  the practicability  of  the  tag,  but  also  the  high  signal  to  noise  ratio  (SNR).  Another frequency domain tag consists of a configurable coplanar LC resonator. With the use of all printing process, the tag was for the first time realized on common packaging papers.  The tag feasibility was confirmed by subsequent measurements. Owing to the ultra-low cost potential and large SNR, The tag may find wide applications in typical RFID solutions such as management of paper tickets for social events and governing of smart documents.

Ultra wide band (UWB) technology possesses a number of inherent merits such as high speed communication and large capacity, multi-path immunity, accurate ranging and positioning, penetration through obstacles, as well as extremely low-cost and low- power transmitters. Thus, passive UWB RFIDs are expected to play an important pole in  the future identification applications for IoT. We explained the feature difference between  UWB  chipless  tags  and  chip  based  tags,  and  forecasted  the  applications respectively  based on the comparison  between the two technologies.  It is expected that the two technologies will coexist and compensate each other in the applications of IoT.

Lastly, the thesis ends up with brief summary of the author’s contributions, and technical prospect for the future development of printable chipless RFID tags.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , xii, 81 p.
Keyword [en]
Chipless RFID tag, configurability, inkjet printing, time domain, frequency domain, paper substrate, tag antenna, linearly tapering, LC resonator
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-142409ISBN: 978-91-7595-020-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-142409DiVA: diva2:700169
Public defence
2014-03-28, Sal/hall D, KTH-ICT, Isafjordgatan 39, Kista, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140304

Available from: 2014-03-04 Created: 2014-03-03 Last updated: 2014-03-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. High Frequency Characterization and Modelling of Inkjet Printed Interconnects On Flexible Substrate for Low-Cost RFID Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Frequency Characterization and Modelling of Inkjet Printed Interconnects On Flexible Substrate for Low-Cost RFID Applications
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2008 (English)In: ESTC 2008: 2ND ELECTRONICS SYSTEM-INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, VOLS 1 AND 2, PROCEEDINGS, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2008, 695-699 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the characterization and modeling of inkjet printed interconnects on flexible polyimide substrate using nano-paticle silver ink for low-cost RFID applications. Then TDR/TDT and S-parameter measurements are performed at high frequency from 30 kHz to 6 GHz. A Jumped equivalent circuit and distributed parameter model of the printed interconnects have been developed for the realization of the full printed RFID tags. Additionally the related electrical properties of the printed interconnects are extracted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NEW YORK: IEEE, 2008
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-38653 (URN)10.1109/ESTC.2008.4684435 (DOI)000261094400126 ()2-s2.0-58149101336 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-2813-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2nd Electronics System-Integration Technology Conference, Greenwich, ENGLAND, SEP 01-04, 2008
Note

QC 20111020

Available from: 2011-10-20 Created: 2011-08-31 Last updated: 2014-03-04Bibliographically approved
2. Linearly-tapered RFID tag antenna with 40% material reduction for ultra-low-cost applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linearly-tapered RFID tag antenna with 40% material reduction for ultra-low-cost applications
2011 (English)In: 2011 IEEE International Conference on RFID, 2011, 45-49 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The development of RFID technology are requiring high performance and low cost tag antennas than ever before. To meet these demands, linear tapering technique is firstly proposed in the design of planar tag antennas. With this strategy, the current distribution along antenna arms is effectively assigned by varying the antenna line width. Compared with conventional ones, the tapered antennas can reduce the material cost by over 40% not only for PCB (Printed Circuit Board) processed, but also for ink-jet printing produced dipole and meander line antennas, while they still maintain comparable performance. With an identical volume of conducting material, the tapered antennas can achieve better radiation performance than non-tapered ones on antenna gains and radiation efficiencies. The method has been successfully verified by applying it onto 869 MHz and 2.45 GHz antennas. The influence of the tapering technique on antenna bandwidth is also investigated.

Keyword
UHF antennas;antenna gains;antenna linewidth;antenna radiation efficiency;antenna radiation performance;current distribution;dipole antennas;frequency 2.45 GHz;frequency 869 MHz;ink-jet printing;linear tapering technique;linearly-tapered RFID tag antenna;material reduction;meander line antennas;planar tag antennas;printed circuit board;radiofrequency identification;UHF antennas;antenna radiation patterns;dipole antennas;ink jet printing;planar antennas;printed circuits;radiofrequency identification;
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-49590 (URN)10.1109/RFID.2011.5764635 (DOI)2-s2.0-79957504732 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2011 5th IEEE International Conference on RFID, RFID 2011. Orlando, FL. 12 April 2011 - 14 April 2011
Note

QC 20111207

Available from: 2011-12-05 Created: 2011-11-28 Last updated: 2014-03-04Bibliographically approved
3. Electromagnetic Analysis of Radio Frequency Identification Antennas for Green Electronics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electromagnetic Analysis of Radio Frequency Identification Antennas for Green Electronics
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2013 (English)In: Electromagnetics, ISSN 0272-6343, E-ISSN 1532-527X, Vol. 33, no 4, 319-331 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article demonstrates in-depth electromagnetic analysis of a radio frequency identification tag antenna manufactured by inkjet printing technology on different paper substrates to achieve ultra-low cost flexible radio frequency identification tags using a novel hole-matching technique for reducing the consumption of substrate material, and conductive ink. Nevertheless, the electromagnetic properties of the paper substrate are vulnerable to various environmental effects. Thus, the proposed antenna design is optimized for consistent wideband performance throughout the complete UHF radio frequency identification band (860960 MHz) while presenting a greater degree of material insensitivity. An advanced antenna design methodological analysis is performed to accomplish an extended read range, while exhibiting benchmarking results when across cardboard cartons filled with metal or water containing objects.

Keyword
radio frequency identification tag, wideband antenna, inkjet printing, paper substrate, green electronics
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123108 (URN)10.1080/02726343.2013.777324 (DOI)000318151800005 ()2-s2.0-84877652096 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20130603

Available from: 2013-06-03 Created: 2013-06-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Process-dependence of inkjet printed folded dipole antenna for 2.45 GHZ RFID tags
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Process-dependence of inkjet printed folded dipole antenna for 2.45 GHZ RFID tags
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2009 (English)In: 2009 3RD EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOLS 1-6, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, 2336-2339 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper focuses on the process dependence of an inkjet printed folded dipole antenna based on practical parameters in a typical inkjet printing process. We present the effect of width variations and number of overprinting times on the antenna properties such as gain, radiation efficiency and input impedance. Furthermore we investigate the read range degradation of the tag on which the antenna is attached, due to width or thickness variations. In addition, an comparison between an inkjet printed antenna on a regular paper substrate and a copper antenna on Printed Circuit Board (PCB) was made, manifesting the strong competitiveness of the printed silver antenna as a low cost solution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NEW YORK: IEEE, 2009
Keyword
CONDUCTIVE TRACKS
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-29906 (URN)000276522101077 ()2-s2.0-70349847547 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-4753-4 (ISBN)
Conference
3rd European Conference on Antennas and Propagation. Berlin, GERMANY. MAR 23-27, 2009
Note

QC 20110218

Available from: 2011-02-18 Created: 2011-02-17 Last updated: 2014-03-04Bibliographically approved
5. An ultra-low-cost RFID tag with 1.67 Gbps data rate by ink-jet printing on paper substrate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An ultra-low-cost RFID tag with 1.67 Gbps data rate by ink-jet printing on paper substrate
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2010 (English)In: 2010 6th IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conference, A-SSCC 2010, 2010, 109-112 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A fully metallic ink-jet printed passive chipless RFID tag on paper substrate is presented. The tag consists of an ultra-wide-band antenna, a microstrip transmission line with distributed shunt capacitors as information coding element which is reconfigurable by ink-jet printing process. Tapered microstrip line is employed to overcome the limitations of low conductivity and thin film thickness of ink-jet printed metal tracks. Measurement results show that the tag features a robust readability over 80 cm reading distance and a high data rate of 1.67 Gb/s.

Keyword
data rate;distributed shunt capacitors;information coding element;ink-jet printing;microstrip transmission line;paper substrate;ultra-low-cost RFID tag;ultra-wide-band antenna;ink jet printing;microstrip lines;paper;radiofrequency identification;substrates;transmission lines;ultra wideband antennas;
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-49588 (URN)10.1109/ASSCC.2010.5716569 (DOI)2-s2.0-79952832471 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2010 6th IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conference, A-SSCC 2010. Beijing. 8 November 2010 - 10 November 2010
Note

QC 20111207

Available from: 2011-12-05 Created: 2011-11-28 Last updated: 2014-03-04Bibliographically approved
6. Design of fully printable and configurable chipless RFID tag on flexible substrate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of fully printable and configurable chipless RFID tag on flexible substrate
2012 (English)In: Microwave and optical technology letters (Print), ISSN 0895-2477, E-ISSN 1098-2760, Vol. 54, no 1, 226-230 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents the design and implementation of a chipless radio frequency identification (RFID) tag on flexible substrate.The tag is designed based on the sympathetic oscillations of multiple LC (inductor–capacitor) circuits that possess distinct resonant frequencies. Information is encoded by controlling placement of these resonant frequencies. To trade off the readability and size of the tag, the optimizations including capacitor placements and different LC combinations are studied. The tag is then realized onto flexible polyimide substrate using toner-transferring process. The detection system is also constructed and used to measure the proposed tag. The measurement results show that the tag can provide an excellent readability more than 20 cm reading range. In addition, this tag is fully printable and configurable, hence making it more feasible and considerably cheaper to be used. This tag can provide a meaningful approach toward the realization of ultralow-cost RFID tags attached onto low-value items.

Keyword
chipless RFID tag, LC circuit, sympathetic oscillation, printable, configurable, low cost
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-49594 (URN)10.1002/mop.26499 (DOI)000297861200061 ()2-s2.0-81855196002 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20120102

Available from: 2011-12-05 Created: 2011-11-28 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
7. Directly Printed Packaging-Paper-Based Chipless RFID Tag With Coplanar LC Resonator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Directly Printed Packaging-Paper-Based Chipless RFID Tag With Coplanar LC Resonator
Show others...
2013 (English)In: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, ISSN 1536-1225, E-ISSN 1548-5757, Vol. 12, 325-328 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This letter presents the design, simulation, fabrication, and characterization of an LC-resonator-based chipless RFID tag. The ID-generating circuit is designed based on a reconfigurable LC resonance circuit. Phase position modulation (PPM) coding is used for the enhancement of the coding capacity. The tag has been realized on packaging paper using all printing technique. In fabrication, overprinting process has been investigated as an effective pathway for the improvement of the conductivities. The tag with 4.25-bit coding capacity has been examined using a sweeping frequency signal transmitted from a vector network analyzer, and experimental results confirm the feasibility of the proposed chipless tag. With further optimizations, the tag can be used in the item-level tracking and identification applications, especially for the management of paper tickets and banknotes.

Keyword
Inkjet printing, LC resonator, packaging paper, phase position modulation (PPM), radio frequency identification (RFID), reconfigurable
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-121625 (URN)10.1109/LAWP.2013.2247556 (DOI)000316802200011 ()2-s2.0-84875596067 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VinnovaEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, SME-2008-2.
Note

QC 20130503

Available from: 2013-05-03 Created: 2013-05-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
8. Design and demonstration of passive UWB RFIDs: Chipless versus chip solutions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and demonstration of passive UWB RFIDs: Chipless versus chip solutions
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2012 (English)In: RFID-Technologies and Applications (RFID-TA), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE , 2012, 6-11 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper reviews recent research on Ultra-Wideband (UWB) techniques for the next generation Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) towards the Internet-of-Things (IoT), conducted by Vinn iPack Center at KTH, Sweden. First, we introduce an inkjet printed chipless UWB RFID for ultra-low cost applications such as item-level tracking. The identification number is coded by variations of the impedance over the transmission line, resulting in the OOK modulated data by means of pulse reflections in time domain. Prototypes were fabricated and measured for 4-bit tag and 8-bit tag, respectively. Thanks to the employment of fully printing process and paper substrates, the tag is potentially ultra-low cost in volume production. Second, a wirelessly powered RFID tag with an active UWB transmitter is studied for advanced applications such as wireless positioning and sensing. The tag is powered by UHF continuous waves, whereas it uses an UWB pulse generator to transmit data to the reader. It ensures the improved coverage and accurate positioning over traditional backscattering UHF tags. UWB readers, positioning, and sensing are also discussed in a system perspective. The two solutions reveal that UWB is a viable alternative to existing passive RFIDs adapting both low-cost applications and high-performance sensing and positioning applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Keyword
Wireless Sensor Networks, Tag, System, Radio
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-118383 (URN)10.1109/RFID-TA.2012.6404570 (DOI)000315438100002 ()2-s2.0-84873161346 (Scopus ID)978-146734656-6 (ISBN)
Conference
2012 IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technologies and Applications, RFID-TA 2012, 5 November 2012 through 7 November 2012, Nice
Note

QC 20130218

Available from: 2013-02-18 Created: 2013-02-18 Last updated: 2014-03-04Bibliographically approved
9. Chipless RFID tags fabricated by fully printing of metallic inks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chipless RFID tags fabricated by fully printing of metallic inks
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Annales des télécommunications, ISSN 0003-4347, E-ISSN 1958-9395, Vol. 68, no 7-8, 401-413 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reviews recent advances in fully printed chipless radio frequency identification (RFID) technology with special concern on the discussion of coding theories, ID generating circuits, and tag antennas. Two types of chipless tags, one based on time-domain reflections and the other based on frequency domain signatures, are introduced. To enable a fully printed encoding circuit, linearly tapering technique is adopted in the first type of tags to cope with parasitic resistances of printed conductors. Both simulation and measurement efforts are made to verify the feasibility of the eight-bit fully printed paper-based tag. In the second type of tags, a group of LC tanks are exploited for encoding data in frequency domain with their resonances. The field measurements of the proof-of-concept of the tag produced by toner-transferring process and flexible printed circuit boards are provided to validate the practicability of the reconfigurable ten-bit chipless RFID tag. Furthermore, a novel RFID tag antenna design adopting linearly tapering technique is introduced. It shows 40 % save of conductive ink materials while keeping the same performance for conventional half-wave dipole antennas and meander line antennas. Finally, the paper discusses the future trends of chipless RFID tags in terms of fabrication cost, coding capacity, size, and reconfigurability. We see that, coupled with revolutionary design of low-cost tag antennas, fabrication/reconfiguration by printing techniques, moving to higher frequencies to shrink tag sizes and reduce manufacturing cost, as well as innovation in ID generating circuits to increase coding capacities, will be important research topics towards item-level tracking applications of chipless RFID tags.

Keyword
Chipless RFID, Fully printing, Frequency resonance, LC tank, Linearly tapering, Paper substrate, Time-domain reflections
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-126871 (URN)10.1007/s12243-013-0378-3 (DOI)000322168500005 ()2-s2.0-84881310844 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VinnovaEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 243557
Note

QC 20130823

Available from: 2013-08-23 Created: 2013-08-22 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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