Structure and Mechanical/Transport properties of Single and Multilayer Polyethylene-based Materials
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The current study discusses the structure, mechanical and transport properties of polyethylene-based materials into two parts. The first part deals with the migration and chemical depletion of active substance such as insecticides from moulded polyethylene sheets. Deltamethrin (DM) and synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) are often used for insect control purpose. It was found that DM as a powder was incapable of recrystallization and remained in liquid state after cooling to room temperature, and that the evaporation of a DM/PBO solution was greater than that predicted from the evaporation rates of pristine separate material components. Infrared spectroscopy and liquid chromatography showed that the loss of DM and PBO through polyethylene sheets was negligible over 30 days, when aged in air at 80 °C (60 and 80 %RH). However, significant migration of the active species was observed in aged polyethylene sheets which were exposed in liquid water (at 80 and 95 °C). In the second part, the structure and properties of multi–layered polymer films were studied in terms of crystallization kinetics, mechanical and transport properties. Previously, it has been shown that when the layer thickness decreases from micrometre-scale to nanometre-scale, leading to improvement of the film performance such as crack propagation and oxygen barrier properties. In this work, two multi-layered systems were considered based on compatible (i) or incompatible layers (ii). In the first case (i), metallocene polyethylene (mPE) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) where investigated as 2, 24, and 288 adjacent layers. In the second case (ii) poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH) and polyethylene adhesive was evaluated as 5 and 19 layers. The crystallization kinetic studies showed that the crystallization rate was retarded as the layers became thinner with increasing number of layers in the multi-layered films as compared to the reference films (2 and 5 layers). The observation was suggested to stem from greater association between layers (inter layer mixing) in the case of mPE/LDPE films with 2 layers. Furthermore, the crack growth resistance increased with increasing number of layers. The x-ray scattering and tensile testing showed that the films were orientated more in extrusion direction than in the transverse direction, besides the EVOH films (the incompatible system) showed higher orientation in the extrusion direction than mPE/LDPE films. The uptake of n-hexane was reduced significantly in multi-layered EVOH films due to the effective protective role of EVOH. Furthermore, it was revealed that non-homogenous swelling causing a folding/curling of bilayer films when exposed to the vapour of the solvent.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , 33 p.
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2014:10
Deltamethrin, piperonyl butoxide, polyethylene, migration, multilayer film, EVOH, n-hexane, crystallization, mechanical properties, X-ray scattering, swelling
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-142560ISBN: 978-91-7595-045-7OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-142560DiVA: diva2:703401
2014-03-28, K2, Teknikringen 28, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Johansson, Mats, ProfessorEk, Monica, Professor
Gedde, Ulf, Professor
QC 201403122014-03-122014-03-062014-03-12Bibliographically approved