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Smart sustainable cities - Exploring ICT solutions for reduced energy use in cities
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7466-1448
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5327-6535
Ericsson.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5191-9250
2014 (English)In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 56, 52-62 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article explores the opportunities of using ICT as an enabling technology to reduce energy use in cities. An analytical framework is developed in which a typology of ICT opportunities is combined with a typology of household functions, i.e. all the activities that require energy. The energy used for household functions is calculated using a consumption-based lifecycle perspective. The analytical framework is intended to be of use to researchers, city and regional authorities and ICT companies interested in acquiring a better understanding of how ICT investments could contribute to reduce energy use in cities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 56, 52-62 p.
Keyword [en]
Smart cities, Energy use, ICT, Smart sustainable cities, Household
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-142907DOI: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2013.12.019ISI: 000337555500006Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84901306975OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-142907DiVA: diva2:704885
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20140814

Available from: 2014-03-13 Created: 2014-03-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Smart Cities and Climate Targets: Reducing cities' energy use with ICT and travel information
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smart Cities and Climate Targets: Reducing cities' energy use with ICT and travel information
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis examines use of ICT in helping to reduce energy use in cities, thereby contributing to sustainable development and achievement of cities’ climate targets. It explores how targets can be developed in a consistent and transparent way, how to identify the main ICT ‘hotspots’ as regards reducing citizens’ energy use and how they can be included in city planning. Implementation of mobility management principles and climate targets was tested in two existing solutions, a traveller information system and a flexible work hub solution.

Four key methodological considerations when setting climate targets for cities were identified. These concerned decisions on: target setting object, temporal scope, units and target range. A tool was developed for identifying promising ICT hotspots. The tool can also be used to monitor implementation of ICT solutions and the associated technological and socio-technical difficulties. In a case study in Greater Stockholm, the ICT hotspots identified were intelligent building heating systems, intelligent transport system and potential transformation of the physical environment (buildings and roads) enabled by ICT solutions.

Two aspects of planning identified as crucial for successful implementation of energy saving ICT solutions were studied in detail: i) Timing of ICT-related decisions in the planning process; and ii) the actor networks needed to implement the ICT solutions and their management. There are few decision points in the current planning process, so the municipality as property owner and its decision-making process are of crucial importance. Two collaborative approaches to govern, network governance and coordination through meta-governance as a way of indirect steering, are proposed.

An investigation of nine traveller information systems and a case study in Stockholm of flexible work hub solutions revealed that mobility management approaches to reduce transport demand and encourage environmentally friendly transport modes are poorly reflected in the implementation. To support mobility management approaches, traveller information systems should primarily offer, or be integrated with, other solutions that support the choices “no travel” and “shorter journey”. Flexible work hubs should be located in local nodes closer to people’s homes.

The main conclusions from this work were that ICT solutions can be modified to support achievement of cities’ climate targets and that climate targets must be defined using transparent methodology that clarifies the target content, ensuring that the most promising energy saving ICT solutions are implemented.

 

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling undersöker hur informations- och kommunikationsteknologi (IKT) kan användas till att bidra till minskning av energianvändning i städer och därmed bidra till att nå städers klimatmål. Den undersöker hur städers klimatmål kan utvecklas på ett konsekvent och transparent sätt, hur de mest lovande IKT-lösningarna kan identifieras när det gäller att minska invånarnas energianvändning och hur de kan ingå i stadsplanering. Genomförande av principer för mobility management samt samhälleliga mål testas i två befintliga lösningar, - ett resenärsinformationssystem och en flexibel arbetsplatslösning.

Fyra centrala metodologiska överväganden för att bestämma städers klimatmål identifieras. Dessa gäller: föremålet för målformuleringen, den tidsmässiga omfattningen, mätenheten och målets räckvidd. Ett verktyg togs fram för att identifiera de IKT- lösningarna som är mest lovande vad gäller att minska stadsbornas energianvändning. Verktyget kan också användas för att observera de identifierade IKT-lösningarnas utnyttjandegrad samt de tekniska och sociotekniska svårigheter som är förenade med införande. I en fallstudie i Storstockholmsområdet identifierades de IKT-lösningar som var mest lovande: intelligenta värmesystem för byggnader, intelligenta transportsystem samt den potentiella förändringen av den fysiska miljön (byggnader och vägar) som görs möjliggörs av IKT-lösningar.

Två aspekter av planering som identifierats som avgörande för ett framgångsrikt införande av energibesparande IKT-lösningar har studerats i detalj: i) Tidpunkten för IKT-relaterade beslut i planeringsprocessen; och ii) de aktörsnätverk som behövs för att införa och förvalta IKT-lösningarna. Det finns få beslutspunkter i den aktuella planeringen vilket gör att beslutsprocessen och kommunens roll som fastighetsägare är av avgörande betydelse. Två strategier för samarbete föreslås, styrning genom samordning i nätverk och samordning via metastyrning (indirekt styrning).

En undersökning av nio reseplanerare och en fallstudie i Stockholm av flexibla arbetsplatslösningar visade att mobility management metoder för att minska efterfrågan på transporter och uppmuntra miljövänliga transportsätt inte återspeglas tillräckligt i genomförandet. För att stödja mobility management-principer bör resenärsinformations-system främst erbjuda, eller integreras med andra lösningar som stödjer valen "ingen resa" och "kortare resa". Hubbar för flexibla arbetsplatser bör placeras i lokala noder närmare bostäder.

De viktigaste slutsatserna i denna avhandling är att IKT-lösningar kan modifieras för att stödja städers klimatmål och att klimatmål måste definieras med hjälp av transparenta metoder för att säkerställa att de mest lovande IKT-lösningar för energiminskning införs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. 67 p.
Series
TRITA - FMS - PHD, 2014:01
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-152821 (URN)978-91-7595-265-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-10-24, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20141002

Available from: 2014-10-02 Created: 2014-10-02 Last updated: 2014-10-09Bibliographically approved

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Kramers, AnnaWangel, Josefin

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