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Including dynamic CO2 intensity with demand response
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3014-5609
2014 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 65, 490-500 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hourly demand response tariffs with the intention of reducing or shifting loads during peak demand hours are being intensively discussed among policy-makers, researchers and executives of future electricity systems. Demand response rates have still low customer acceptance, apparently because the consumption habits requires stronger incentive to change than any proposed financial incentive. An hourly CO2 intensity signal could give customers an extra environmental motivation to shift or reduce loads during peak hours, as it would enable co-optimisation of electricity consumption costs and carbon emissions reductions. In this study, we calculated the hourly dynamic CO2 signal and applied the calculation to hourly electricity market data in Great Britain, Ontario and Sweden. This provided a novel understanding of the relationships between hourly electricity generation mix composition, electricity price and electricity mix CO2 intensity. Load shifts from high-price hours resulted in carbon emission reductions for electricity generation mixes where price and CO2 intensity were positively correlated. The reduction can be further improved if the shift is optimised using both price and CO2 intensity. The analysis also indicated that an hourly CO2 intensity signal can help avoid carbon emissions increases for mixes with a negative correlation between electricity price and CO2 intensity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 65, 490-500 p.
Keyword [en]
CO2 intensity, Electricity price, Demand response
National Category
Energy Systems Ecology
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-142874DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2013.10.044ISI: 000330813800048ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84890315745OAI: diva2:704940

QC 20140313

Available from: 2014-03-13 Created: 2014-03-13 Last updated: 2014-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Residential Demand Response in the Context of European Union Energy Policy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Residential Demand Response in the Context of European Union Energy Policy
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In order to achieve energy security, reduce global warming and promote the vision of a common electricity market, the European Union (EU) is transforming the EU electricity grid from a large set of independent hierarchical national grids into one meshed EU-wide grid. For the first time in the history of the electric power industry, residential consumers are being integrated into the grid as active consumers and micro-generators of electricity. In the near future, residential buildings in the EU will have to use much less energy and the right source of energy. If residential consumers want to maintain the same level of energy service, buildings will have to use and produce energy differently. Decentralised energy production from renewable energy sources beside or within residential buildingsis required. Distribution grids will receive more locally produced energy and be more autonomous. Suppliers and distribution system operators will have to change business models from quantity-based to service-based. As residential consumers become more active in the EU, residential system developers need to understand what and how system requirements can support EU energy policy. This thesis therefore interprets EU energy policy concerns in terms of factors influencing the residential demand response system design. To test the viability of the influencing factors, system design was constructed and prototyped. One important influencing factor,the “greenness” of electricity information, was concretised as a dynamic CO2 signal and integrated into the system design as a residential demand response signal. The dynamic CO2 signal was not always correlated with the dynamic price of electricity, but there were strong indications that the CO2 intensity signal can and should be used as a supplement to the price signal in the residential demand response system to increase motivation for energy savings. It was found that a CO2 intensity-driven Time-of-Use tariff can be developed, based on forecasts of the hourly wholesale market price and the CO2 intensity, and that this tariff is beneficial for both supplier and household. The thesis thus demonstrates that it is possible to extract system design-influencing factors from EU energy policy and use these for the design and implementation of a residential demand response system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. xvi, 109 p.
National Category
Energy Systems Information Systems
Research subject
Industrial Ecology
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-156879 (URN)978-91-7595-358-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-15, F3, Lindstedsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)

QC 20141204

Available from: 2014-12-04 Created: 2014-12-03 Last updated: 2014-12-04Bibliographically approved

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