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Heterogeneous Integration of Silicon and Printed Electronics for Intelligente Sensing Devices
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0528-9371
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Driven by the exploding popularity of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), the demand for thin, flexible, lightweight intelligent sensingdevices is growing rapidly. Two attractive examples are intelligent packaging and wearable healthcare monitoring devices, which help to connect and track / monitor everything / everybody at any time and in any place. The remarkably swift development of flexible and printed electronics is promoting new possibilities for cost-effective manufacturing of such devices. However, compared with silicon-based circuits, state-of-the-art all-printed circuits are encountering low integration density, long switching time and corresponding high cost per function. Therefore, a heterogeneous platform is in great demand, which employs a cost-effective, large-area manufacturing technique while keeping the same complex functionality and processing capability as silicon-based systems. Due to temperature and mechanical reasons, traditional silicon integration methods, such as solder bonding and wire bonding, are not suitable for flexible printed electronics. This thesis aims to develop a generally applicable hetero-geneous integration platform for the realization of intelligent sensing devices on flexible substrates.

First, inkjet printing technique is introduced and studied. As the basic and key element, inkjet printing technology is employed to fabricate interconnections as well as electrodes of the printed sensors. Novel flexible media, plastic and paper, are evaluated as the substrates of printed electronic systems from two aspects: the electrical characteristics and performance reliability. In addition to widely used inkjet/photo paper, packaging paper is presented as a promising candidate for intelligent packaging applications due to the advantages in terms of lower price, higher temperature endurance and better reliability against 85◦/85% RH aging.

Second, the heterogeneous integration platform enabled byinkjet printing is presented. Benefiting from the non-contact, accurate alignment and fine resolution features, this integration technique has the advantages of simplified fabrication process and multi-substrate compatibility. The design rules have been studied and the integration process is optimized for silicon chips with/without packaging.

Finally, to verify the suitability, the heterogeneous integration platform is applied to two representative applications, each with unique emphasis and requirements.

For intelligent packaging, low-cost is one crucial requirement. Paper substrate is selected because it is cost-effective, recyclableand a commonly-used packaging material in industry. In order to fit into non-regular shape pack-ages, the intelligent packaging needs to be bent or folded, which brings about reliability concern for paper electronics. Therefore, bending and folding tests are applied to reveal the capability and the limitation of paper electronics in terms of flexibility. For applications such as fresh food tracking, humidity is an important physical quantity to monitor during transportation and storage. Therefore, a resistive humidity sensor based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes is fabricated and integrated. A commercial packaged microcontroller is used to sense and store the resistance of the sensor and control the LEDs to indicate the ambient humidity level. By integratingthe microcon-troller, LEDs and a switch with the printed sensor and battery, a prototype of a paper-based humidity sensor card is implemented.

For the healthcare application, user comfort is an essential element. Future long-term healthcare devices require a bio-sensing system which is small, thin, lightweight and wearable, has a long-battery life, and is easy to customize. The heterogeneous platform offers a promising solution for such systems from three aspects. 1) A fully integrated system-on-chip (SoC) is embedded to detect and process the bio-signal. The SoC solution features tiny size and low-power consumption, which contribute to system miniaturization and long battery lifetime. 2) Inkjet printing offers a cost-effective approach to fabricate personalized electrodes. 3) Inkjet printed interconnections enable the direct integration of the bare die instead of the packaged chip. This significantly reduces the physical size of the system, simplifies the manufacture process and lowers the cost. The concept is demonstrated by aminiaturized wearable Bio-Patch with the size of 4.5 cm×2.5 cm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , v, 61 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT-ECS AVH, ISSN 1653-6363 ; 14:05
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-142920ISBN: 978-91-7595-033-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-142920DiVA: diva2:705003
Public defence
2014-03-28, Sal/Hall D, KTH-ICT, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140314

Available from: 2014-03-14 Created: 2014-03-13 Last updated: 2014-03-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Electrical performance and reliability evaluation of inkjet-printed Ag interconnections on paper substrates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrical performance and reliability evaluation of inkjet-printed Ag interconnections on paper substrates
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2012 (English)In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 88, 68-72 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Printing technology, especially inkjet printing, enables mass manufacturing of electronics on various substrate materials. Paper is one potential carrier for printed electronics to realize low-cost, flexible, recyclable smart packages. However, concerns exist regarding commonly used photo paper substrate, in terms of price and reliability against environmental variation. In this work, for the first time, ordinary low-cost and high-moisture-resistance package paper is investigated as an alternative to be the substrate of printed electronics. The surface morphology and electrical performance of inkjet printed interconnections on six different paper substrates from two categories (inkjet paper and package paper) are examined and compared. The printed interconnections on inkjet papers show smaller sheet resistance and better repeatability than those on package papers. However, low-cost package paper stands higher temperature and exhibits better reliability during 85°C/85 RH aging test. Package paper is suitable for smart package applications that have relaxed requirements of conductivity and high requests of moisture resistance.

Keyword
Inkjet printing, Paper substrate, Electrical resistivity, Nanoparticle silver ink, Reliability, 85 degrees C/85% RH
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-100358 (URN)10.1016/j.matlet.2012.08.030 (DOI)000310423700020 ()2-s2.0-84866605755 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VinnovaICT - The Next Generation
Note

QC 20121115

Available from: 2012-08-07 Created: 2012-08-07 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Heterogeneous integration of bio-sensing system-on-chip and printed electronics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heterogeneous integration of bio-sensing system-on-chip and printed electronics
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2012 (English)In: IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems, ISSN 2156-3357, Vol. 2, no 4, 672-682 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we present a heterogeneous integration platform for bio-sensing applications, which seamlessly integrates low-power silicon-based circuits with cost-effective printed electronics. A prototype of wearable Bio-Sensing Node is fabricated to investigate the suitability of this integration approach. A customized mixed-signal system-on-chip (SoC) with the size of 1.5× 3.0 mm2 is utilized to amplify, digitize, buffer, and transmit the sensed bio-signals. Inkjet printing technology is employed to print nano-particle silver ink on a flexible substrate to fabricate chip-on-flex, electrodes as well as interconnections. This additive and digital fabrication technology enables fast prototype of the customized electrode pattern. Its high accuracy and fine resolution features allow the direct integration of the bare die (the pad size of 65 μ m and pitch size of 90 μ m) on the flexible substrate, which significantly miniaturizes the wearable system. The optimal size and layout of printed electrodes are investigated through the in vivo test for electrocardiogram recording applications. The total size of the implemented Bio-Sensing Node is 4.5× 2.5 cm2, which is comparable with a commercial electrode. This inkjet printed heterogeneous integration approach offers a promising solution for the next-generation cost-effective personalized wearable healthcare monitoring devices.

Keyword
Heterogeneous system integration, inkjet printing technology, system-on-chip (SoC), wearable healthcare device
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-116511 (URN)10.1109/JETCAS.2012.2223554 (DOI)000208973000003 ()2-s2.0-84871366070 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VINNOVA
Note

QC 20130122

Available from: 2013-01-22 Created: 2013-01-21 Last updated: 2015-06-23Bibliographically approved
3. Integration of f-MWCNT Sensor and Printed Circuits on Paper Substrate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of f-MWCNT Sensor and Printed Circuits on Paper Substrate
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2013 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 13, no 10, 3948-3956 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The integration of sensors endows the packages with intelligence and interactivity. This paper is considered the most suitable substrate of smart packages because it is cost-effective, light, flexible, and recyclable. However, common concern exists regarding the reliability of paper-based system against bending and folding. In this paper, inkjet-printing of silver nanoparticles is used to form circuit pattern as well as interconnections for system integration on paper substrate. A humidity sensor made by functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes is fabricated on the same substrate. We evaluate the electrical performance of paper electronics and the reliability against bending and folding. The results reveal the capability and the limitation of paper electronics in terms of flexibility. The concept of a paper-based smart electronic system and the manufacture process are demonstrated by an interactive humidity sensor card prototype.

Keyword
Heterogeneous system, paper electronics, inkjet printing, f-MWCNTs-based humidity sensor, smart packages
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-129608 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2013.2260534 (DOI)000324253700011 ()2-s2.0-84883819807 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VinnovaEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 243557 FP7-SME-2008-2
Note

QC 20131004

Available from: 2013-10-04 Created: 2013-10-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Bio-Patch Design and Implementation Based on a Low-Power System-on-Chip and Paper-Based Inkjet Printing Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bio-Patch Design and Implementation Based on a Low-Power System-on-Chip and Paper-Based Inkjet Printing Technology
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2012 (English)In: IEEE transactions on information technology in biomedicine, ISSN 1089-7771, E-ISSN 1558-0032, Vol. 16, no 6, 1043-1050 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the prototype implementation of a Bio-Patch using fully integrated low-power System-on-Chip (SoC) sensor and paper-based inkjet printing technology. The SoC sensor is featured with programmable gain and bandwidth to accommodate a variety of bio-signals. It is fabricated in a 0.18-µm standard CMOS technology, with a total power consumption of 20 µW from a 1.2 V supply. Both the electrodes and interconnections are implemented by printing conductive nano-particle inks on a flexible photo paper substrate using inkjet printing technology. A Bio-Patch prototype is developed by integrating the SoC sensor, a soft battery, printed electrodes and interconnections on a photo paper substrate. The Bio-Patch can work alone or operate along with other patches to establish a wired network for synchronous multiple-channel bio-signals recording. The measurement results show that electrocardiogram and electromyogram are successfully measured in in-vivo tests using the implemented Bio-Patch prototype.

Keyword
Bio-electric SoC, Sensor IC, Bio-Patch, electrocardiogram (ECG), electromyogram (EMG), paper-based inkjet printing technology
National Category
Medical Equipment Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-100691 (URN)10.1109/TITB.2012.2204437 (DOI)000312268300007 ()22711780 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84870923837 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20130110

Available from: 2012-08-13 Created: 2012-08-13 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
5. A Hybrid Low Power Biopatch for Body Surface Potential Measurement
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Hybrid Low Power Biopatch for Body Surface Potential Measurement
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2013 (English)In: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, ISSN 2168-2194, Vol. 17, no 3, 591-599 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a wearable biopatch prototype for body surface potential measurement. It combines three key technologies, including mixed-signal system on chip (SoC) technology, inkjet printing technology, and anisotropic conductive adhesive (ACA) bonding technology. An integral part of the biopatch is a low-power low-noise SoC. The SoC contains a tunable analog front end, a successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter, and a reconfigurable digital controller. The electrodes, interconnections, and interposer are implemented by inkjet-printing the silver ink precisely on a flexible substrate. The reliability of printed traces is evaluated by static bending tests. ACA is used to attach the SoC to the printed structures and form the flexible hybrid system. The biopatch prototype is light and thin with a physical size of 16 cm x 16 cm. Measurement results show that low-noise concurrent electrocardiogram signals from eight chest points have been successfully recorded using the implemented biopatch.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2013
Keyword
body surface potential, Active Cable, inkjet printing, ACA, wearable device, SoC, Bio-Patch
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-119278 (URN)10.1109/JBHI.2013.2252017 (DOI)000321146100011 ()2-s2.0-84885120353 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20130805. Updated from accepted to published.

Available from: 2013-03-18 Created: 2013-03-11 Last updated: 2014-03-14Bibliographically approved
6. A system-on-chip and paper-based inkjet printed electrodes for a hybrid wearable bio-sensing system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A system-on-chip and paper-based inkjet printed electrodes for a hybrid wearable bio-sensing system
Show others...
2012 (English)In: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE, IEEE , 2012, 5026-5029 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a hybrid wearable bio-sensing system, which combines traditional small-area low-power and high-performance System-on-Chip (SoC), flexible paper substrate and cost-effective Printed Electronics. Differential bio-signals are measured, digitized, stored and transmitted by the SoC. The total area of the chip is 1.5 × 3.0 mm2. This enables the miniaturization of the wearable system. The electrodes and interconnects are inkjet printed on paper substrate and the performance is verified in in-vivo tests. The quality of electrocardiogram signal sensed by printed electrodes is comparable with commercial electrodes, with noise level slightly increased. The paper-based inkjet printed system is flexible, light and thin, which makes the final system comfortable for end-users. The hybrid bio-sensing system offers a potential solution to the next generation wearable healthcare technology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Series
IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1557-170X
Keyword
Biosensing, Biosignals, Electrocardiogram signal, End-users, Healthcare technology, In-vivo tests, Low Power, Noise levels, Paper substrate, Potential solutions, Printed electrodes, Printed electronics, System on chips, System-On-Chip, Wearable systems
National Category
Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-100360 (URN)10.1109/EMBC.2012.6347122 (DOI)000313296505060 ()2-s2.0-84870779316 (Scopus ID)978-142444119-8 (ISBN)
Conference
34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS 2012; San Diego, CA;28 August 2012 through 1 September 2012
Note

QC 20130121

Available from: 2012-08-07 Created: 2012-08-07 Last updated: 2014-03-14Bibliographically approved
7. Characterization of dry biopotential electrodes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of dry biopotential electrodes
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS, 2013, 1478-1481 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Driven by the increased interest in wearable long-term healthcare monitoring systems, varieties of dry electrodes are proposed based on different materials with different patterns and structures. Most of the studies reported in the literature focus on proposing new electrodes and comparing its performance with commercial electrodes. Few papers are about detailed comparison among different dry electrodes. In this paper, printed metal-plate electrodes, textile based electrodes, and spiked electrodes are for the first time evaluated and compared under the same experimental setup. The contact impedance and noise characterization are measured. The in-vivo electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement is applied to evaluate the overall performance of different electrodes. Textile electrodes and printed electrodes gain comparable high-quality ECG signals. The ECG signal obtained by spiked electrodes is noisier. However, a clear ECG envelope can be observed and the signal quality can be easily improved by backend signal processing. The features of each type of electrodes are analyzed and the suitable application scenario is addressed.

Series
Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS, ISSN 1557-170X
Keyword
Application scenario, Biopotential electrodes, Contact impedance, Healthcare monitoring, Noise characterization, Printed electrodes, Signal quality, Textile electrodes, Electrocardiography, Plate metal, Signal processing, Textiles, Electrodes
National Category
Medical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-140001 (URN)10.1109/EMBC.2013.6609791 (DOI)000341702101241 ()2-s2.0-84886466999 (Scopus ID)9781457702167 (ISBN)
Conference
2013 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC 2013; Osaka, Japan, 3-7 July 2013
Note

QC 20140117

Available from: 2014-01-17 Created: 2014-01-16 Last updated: 2014-10-27Bibliographically approved

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  • apa
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  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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