Critical Review: Copper Runoff from Outdoor Copper Surfaces at Atmospheric Conditions
2014 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 3, 1372-1381 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
This review on copper runoff dispersed from unsheltered naturally patinated copper used for roofing and facades summarizes and discusses influencing factors, available literature, and predictive models, and the importance of fate and speciation for environmental risk assessment. Copper runoff from. outdoor surfaces is predominantly governed by electrochemical and chemical reactions and is highly dependent on given exposure conditions (size, inclination, geometry, degree of sheltering, and orientation), surface parameters (age, patina composition, and thickness), and site-specific environmental conditions (gaseous pollutants, chloride, rainfall characteristics (amount, intensity, pH), wind direction, temperature, time of wetness, season). The corrosion rate cannot be used to assess the runoff rate. The extent of released copper varies largely between different rain events and is related to dry and wet periods, dry deposition prior to the rain event and prevailing rain and patina characteristics. Interpretation and use of copper runoff data for environmental risk assessment and management need therefore to consider site-specific factors and focus on average data of long-term studies (several years). Risk assessments require furthermore that changes in copper speciation, bioavailability aspects, and potential irreversible retention on solid surfaces are considered, factors that determine the environmental fate of copper runoff from outdoor surfaces.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 48, no 3, 1372-1381 p.
Naturally Patinated Copper, Corrosion-Induced Release, Roof Runoff, Chemical Speciation, Aquatic Toxicity, Water Runoff, Heavy-Metals, Storm Water, Rain Events, External Structures
Other Chemistry Topics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-143438DOI: 10.1021/es404410sISI: 000331015100005ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84893546138OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-143438DiVA: diva2:707364
QC 201403242014-03-242014-03-212014-03-24Bibliographically approved