Growth and Removal of Inclusions During Ladle Stirring
2001 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
The growth and removal of inclusions in stirred ladles hasbeen studied. First, the importance of different growthmechanisms suggested in the literature were studied. Simulationresults from a fundamental model of an induction-stirred ladlehave been used as input in the calculations. Based on thegrowth calculations it was concluded that four of the growthmechanisms need not to be considered since they contribute solittle: i) diffusion of oxygen and aluminum to the inclusionsurface, ii) diffusion coalescence, iii) Brown motioncollision, and iv) laminar shear collision. The majorcontributor to inclusion growth is turbulent collision. Growthdue to Stoke's collisions is also somewhat important if largedifferences among inclusion sizes exist.
Growth of inclusions in gas stirred ladles was studied usinga similar approach as the one for induction stirred ladles, butwith use of simulation results from a fundamental mathematicalmodel of a gas-stirred ladle. Similarly to what was found inthe case of induction stirring, it was found that turbulentcollisions and Stokes collisions appeared to be the majormechanisms for inclusion growth. The contribution of laminarshear collisions to growth was deemed negligible compared tothat of turbulent collisions.
For the gas stirred ladle different removal mechanisms werealso studied, based on input data from a mathematical model ofa gas-stirred ladle. It was found that different modelssuggested to predict the inclusion removal due to bubbleflotation gave very different results. Also, all models assumeda spherical shape of the gas bubbles, which was found to beless realistic. Therefore, a new model for inclusion removal byspherical cap bubble flotation was developed. In the newcalculations, the most important mechanisms of inclusionremoval were found to be removal to the top slag and removal bybubble flotation, assuming spherical-cap bubbles and planecontact. When the bubbles were assumed to be spherical,resulting removal rates were lower than when they were assumedto be spherical caps. Based on these results it is concludedthat more research is needed to obtain a better understandingof the importance of bubble flotation on inclusion removal.Experiments are clearly needed to determine which modelconcepts produce predictions in best agreement withcorresponding data from actual steelmaking processes.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Materialvetenskap , 2001. , 21 p.
inclusions, ladle, gas-stirring, induction-stirring, secondary refining, bubble flotation
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-1281ISBN: 91-7283-073-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-1281DiVA: diva2:7096
NR 201408052001-08-192001-08-19Bibliographically approved