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Whispering gallery mode nanodisk resonator based on layered metal-dielectric waveguide
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3368-9786
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
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2014 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 22, no 7, 8490-8502 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes a layered metal-dielectric waveguide consisting of a stack of alternating metal and dielectric films which enables an ultracompact mode confinement. The properties of whispering gallery modes supported by disk resonators based on such waveguides are investigated for achieving a large Purcell factor. We show that by stacking three layers of 10 nm thick silver with two layers of 50 nm dielectric layers (of refractive index n) in sequence, the disk radius can be as small as 61 nm similar to lambda(0) / (7n) and the mode volume is only 0.0175 (lambda(0) / (2n))(3). When operating at 40 K, the cavity's Q-factor can be similar to 670; Purcell factor can be as large as 2.3x10(4), which is more than five times larger than that achievable in a metal-dielectric-metal disk cavity in the same condition. When more dielectric layers with smaller thicknesses are used, even more compact confinement can be achieved. For example, the radius of a cavity consisting of seven dielectric-layer waveguide can be shrunk down to lambda(0) / (13.5n), corresponding to a mode volume of 0.005 lambda(0) / (2n))(3), and Purcell factor can be enhanced to 7.3x10(4) at 40 K. The influence of parameters like thicknesses of dielectric and metal films, cavity size, and number of dielectric layers is also comprehensively studied. The proposed waveguide and nanodisk cavity provide an alternative for ultracompact light confinement, and can find applications where a strong light-matter interaction is necessary.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 22, no 7, 8490-8502 p.
Keyword [en]
Plasmonics, Waveguide, Nanodisk, Quality factors, Mode volume, Purcell factor
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-143937DOI: 10.1364/OE.22.008490ISI: 000335898700110Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84898639769OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-143937DiVA: diva2:709844
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR-621-2010-4379Swedish Research Council, VR-621-2011-4526
Note

QC 20140403

Available from: 2014-04-03 Created: 2014-04-03 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Design, fabrication and characterization of plasmonic components based on silicon nanowire platform
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design, fabrication and characterization of plasmonic components based on silicon nanowire platform
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Optical interconnects based on CMOS compatible photonic integrated circuits are regarded as a promising technique to tackle the issues traditional electronics faces, such as limited bandwidth, latency, vast energy consumption and so on. In recent years, plasmonic integrated components have gained great attentions due to the properties of nano-scale confinement, which may potentially bridge the size mismatch between photonic and electronic circuits. Based on silicon nanowire platform, this thesis work studies the design, fabrication and characterization of several integrated plasmonic components, aiming to combine the benefits of Si and plasmonics.

The basic theories of surface plasmon polaritons are introduced in the beginning, where we explain the physics behind the diffraction-free confinement. Numerical methods frequently used in the thesis including finite-difference time-domain method and finite-element method are then reviewed. We summarize the device fabrication techniques such as film depositions, e-beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching as well as characterization methods, such as direct measurement method, butt coupling, grating coupling etc.

Fabrication results of an optically tunable silicon-on-insulator microdisk and III-V cavities in applications as light sources for future nanophotonics interconnects are briefly discussed. Afterwards we present in details the experimental demonstrations and novel design of plasmonic components.

Hybrid plasmonic waveguides and directional couplers with various splitting ratios are firstly experimentally demonstrated. The coupling length of two 170 nm wide waveguides with a separation of 140 nm is only 1.55 µm. Secondly, an ultracompact polarization beam splitter with a footprint of 2×5.1 μm2 is proposed. The device features an extinction ratio of 12 dB and an insertion loss below 1.5 dB in the entire C-band. Thirdly, we show that plasmonics offer decreased bending losses and enhanced Purcell factor for submicron bends. Novel hybrid plasmonic disk, ring and donut resonators with radii of ~ 0.5 μm and 1 μm are experimentally demonstrated for the first time. The Q-factor of disks with 0.5 μm radii are                         , corresponding to Purcell factors of . Thermal tuning is also presented. Fourthly, we propose a design of electro-optic polymer modulator based on plasmonic microring. The figure of merit characterizing modulation efficiency is 6 times better comparing with corresponding silicon slot polymer modulator. The device exhibits an insertion loss below 1 dB and a power consumption of 5 fJ/bit at 100 GHz. At last, we propose a tightly-confined waveguide and show that the radius of disk resonators based on the proposed waveguide can be shrunk below 60 nm, which may be used to pursue a strong light-matter interaction.

The presented here novel components confirm that hybrid plasmonic structures can play an important role in future inter- and intra-core computer communication systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. xii, 76 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2014:05
Keyword
Planar integrated circuit, silicon photonics, plasmonics, subwavelength, directional coupler, polarization beam splitter, disk resonator, ring resonator, finite-difference time-domain, photonic crystal, electro-optic polymer, Purcell factor.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-143953 (URN)978-91-7595-060-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-04-25, Sal D, Forum, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR-621-2010-4379
Note

QC 20140404

Available from: 2014-04-04 Created: 2014-04-03 Last updated: 2016-03-07Bibliographically approved

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Yan, MinWosinski, Lech

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