Effect of implanted species on thermal evolution of ion-induced defects in ZnO
2014 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 115, no 7, 073512- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Implanted atoms can affect the evolution of ion-induced defects in radiation hard materials exhibiting a high dynamic annealing and these processes are poorly understood. Here, we study the thermal evolution of structural defects in wurtzite ZnO samples implanted at room temperature with a wide range of ion species (from B-11 to Bi-209) to ion doses up to 2 x 10(16) cm(-2). The structural disorder was characterized by a combination of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, nuclear reaction analysis, and transmission electron microscopy, while secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to monitor the behavior of both the implanted elements and residual impurities, such as Li. The results show that the damage formation and its thermal evolution strongly depend on the ion species. In particular, for F implanted samples, a strong out-diffusion of the implanted ions results in an efficient crystal recovery already at 600 degrees C, while co-implantation with B (via BF2) ions suppresses both the F out-diffusion and the lattice recovery at such low temperatures. The damage produced by heavy ions (such as Cd, Au, and Bi) exhibits a two-stage annealing behavior where efficient removal of point defects and small defect clusters occurs at temperatures similar to 500 degrees C, while the second stage is characterized by a gradual and partial annealing of extended defects. These defects can persist even after treatment at 900 degrees C. In contrast, the defects produced by light and medium mass ions (O, B, and Zn) exhibit a more gradual annealing with increasing temperature without distinct stages. In addition, effects of the implanted species may lead to a nontrivial defect evolution during the annealing, with N, Ag, and Er as prime examples. In general, the obtained results are interpreted in terms of formation of different dopant-defect complexes and their thermal stability.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 115, no 7, 073512- p.
Single-Crystals, Damage Formation, Gan, Photoluminescence, Temperature, Stability, Oxide
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-143989DOI: 10.1063/1.4866055ISI: 000332042000015ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84899026582OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-143989DiVA: diva2:710297
QC 201404072014-04-072014-04-042014-04-07Bibliographically approved