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Polymer modification of bitumen: Advances and challenges
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1779-1710
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0889-6078
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3968-6778
2014 (English)In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 54, no 1, 18-38 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Advances and challenges in the field of bitumen polymer modification for road construction during the last 40 years are reviewed in this paper. The history of bitumen polymer modification is described chronologically. Some popular plastomers and thermoplastic elastomers in bitumen modification are discussed regarding their advantages and disadvantages, including polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), ethylene-butyl acrylate (EBA), styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS), styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) and styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS). Although these polymers all improve bitumen properties to some extent, there are still some drawbacks limiting the future development of bitumen polymer modification, such as high cost, low ageing resistance and poor storage stability of polymer modified bitumen (PMB). Researchers attempted various ways to remove these drawbacks. Some technical developments for removing drawbacks are reviewed in this paper, including saturation, sulfur vulcanization, adding antioxidants, using hydrophobic clay minerals, functionalization and application of reactive polymers. The future development of polymers for bitumen modification is analyzed as well. Since it is currently challenging to perfectly achieve all expected PMB properties at the same time, some compromised recommendations are given in this paper, among which greatly enhancing the properties with an acceptably high cost, significantly reducing the cost with relatively poor properties and their combinations. Functionalization is emphasized as a promising way to enhance the properties of currently used polymers and develop new-type polymer modifiers with much greater success in the future. It is also recommended that future research on bitumen polymer modification focuses more on function development towards enhancing: adhesion with aggregates, long-term performance and recyclability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014. Vol. 54, no 1, 18-38 p.
Keyword [en]
Advance, Challenge, Future development, Polymer modified bitumen
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering Polymer Technologies
Research subject
Transport Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144175DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2014.02.005ISI: 000336111000003Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84898809979OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-144175DiVA: diva2:711917
Note

QC 20140612

Available from: 2014-04-11 Created: 2014-04-10 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Towards a Viscoelastic Model for Phase Separation in Polymer Modified Bitumen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a Viscoelastic Model for Phase Separation in Polymer Modified Bitumen
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, a review is given on the most popular polymers used today for polymer modification of bitumen. Furthermore, the development of a model for phase separation in polymer modified bitumen (PMB) is proposed, that will enable a better control and understanding of PMB phase behaviour, allowing thus to enhanced long-term performance. PMB is hereby considered as a blend and focus is placed on its structure, its equilibrium thermodynamics and its phase separation dynamics. The effects of dynamic asymmetry on phase separation in PMB are analysed with related theories and some image data. Based on the discussion in this thesis, it is concluded that the effects of dynamic asymmetry between bitumen and polymer should be taken into consideration when studying phase separation in PMB. By analysing related literature and image data, it is found that some features of viscoelastic phase separation are shown during the phase separation process in some PMBs. It is therefore possible and useful to develop a viscoelastic model for PMB to describe its phase separation behaviour. In this, the stress-diffusion coupling is expected to play a key role in the model. Finally, recommendations are made towards the future research which is needed to realize the proposed model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. v, 26 p.
Series
TRITA-BKN. Bulletin, ISSN 1103-4270 ; 130
Keyword
Polymer modified bitumen; storage stability; viscoelastic phase separation; PMB model
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-163540 (URN)978-91-7595-503-2 (ISBN)
Presentation
2015-04-20, B1, Brinellvägen 23, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20150409

Available from: 2015-04-09 Created: 2015-04-07 Last updated: 2015-04-09Bibliographically approved
2. Storage Stability and Phase Separation Behaviour of Polymer-Modified Bitumen: Characterization and Modelling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Storage Stability and Phase Separation Behaviour of Polymer-Modified Bitumen: Characterization and Modelling
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Polymer-modified bitumen (PMB) is a high-performance material for road construction and maintenance. But its storage stability and phase separation behaviour are still not sufficiently understood and need to be studied toward a more successful and sustainable application of PMB. In this thesis, the equilibrium thermodynamics and phase separation dynamics of PMB are investigated with the aim at a fundamental understanding on PMB storage stability and phase separation behaviour. The development of polymer modifiers for paving bitumen is reviewed. The phase separation process in unstable PMBs is captured by fluorescence microscopy at the storage temperature (180 °C). A coupled phase-field model of diffusion and flow is developed to simulate and predict the PMB storage stability and phase separation behaviour. The temperature dependency of PMB phase separation behaviour is modelled by introducing temperature-dependent model parameters between 140 °C and 180 °C. This model is implemented in a finite element software package and calibrated with the experimental observations of real PMBs. The results indicate that storage stability and phase separation behaviour of PMB are strongly dependent on the specific combination of the base bitumen and polymer. An unstable PMB starts to separate into two phases by diffusion, because of the poor polymer-bitumen compatibility. Once the density difference between the two phases becomes sufficiently significant, gravity starts to drive the flow of the two phases and accelerates the separation in the vertical direction. The proposed model, based on the Cahn-Hilliard equation, Flory-Huggins theory and Navier-Stokes equations, is capable of capturing the stability differences among the investigated PMBs and their distinct microstructures at different temperatures. The various material parameters of the PMBs determine the differences in the phase separation behaviour in terms of stability and temperature dependency. The developed model is able to simulate and explain the resulting differences due to the material parameters. The outcome of this study may thus assist in future efforts of ensuring storage stability and sustainable application of PMB.

Abstract [sv]

Polymermodifierade bitumen (PMB) är ett högpresterande material för väganläggning och underhåll. Men PMB:s lagringsstabilitet och fassepareringsegenskaper är inte tillräckligt förstådda än och behöver studeras för en mer framgångsrik och hållbar användning av PMB. I denna avhandling studeras termodynamisk jämvikt och fasseparation av PMB med målsättning att uppnå en grundläggande förståelse av PMB:s lagringsstabilitet och fassepareringsegenskaper. Utvecklingen av polymermodifierade bitumen sammanfattas. Fasseparationsprocessen av instabil PMB:s studeras med hjälp av fluorescens mikroskopi vid lagringstemperatur (180 °C). En kopplad fas-fälts modell som beskriver diffusion och flöde har utvecklats för att simulera och förutsäga PMB:s lagringsstabilitet och fassepareringsegenskaper. Temperaturberoendet hos PMB:s fasseparation har beskrivits genom att införa temperaturberoende modellparametrar mellan 140 °C och 180 °C. Denna modell är införd i ett finit element program och kalibrerad med experimentella observationer på verkliga PMB. Resultaten indikerar att lagringsstabiliteten och fasseparationen hos PMB är starkt beroende av den specifika kombinationen av basbitumen och polymer. En instabil PMB börjar separera i två faser genom diffusion, beroende på dålig bitumen-polymer kompatibilitet. När skillnaden i densitet mellan de två faserna blir tillräckligt stor kommer gravitationen att driva flödet av de två faserna och accelerera separationen i vertikalled. Den föreslagna modellen, baserad på Cahn-Hilliards ekvation, Flory-Huggins teori och Navier-Stokes ekvation, kan beskriva stabilitetsskillnaderna mellan de undersökta PMB:erna och deras distinkta mikrostruktur vid olika temperaturer. De olika materialparametrarna hos PMB bestämmer skillnaden i fassepareringsegenskaper i termer av stabilitet och temperaturberoende. Den utvecklade modellen kan simulera och förklara de resulterande skillnaderna på grund av materialparametrarna. Resultatet av denna studie kan bidra till att säkerställa lagringsstabilitet och hållbara applikationer för PMB.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. 71 p.
Series
TRITA-BKN. Bulletin, ISSN 1103-4270 ; 143
Keyword
Polymer-modified bitumen; Storage stability; Phase separation; Fluorescence microscopy; Phase-field modelling, Polymermodifierad bitumen, Lagringsstabilitet, Fasseparation, Fluorescensmikroskopi, Fas-fälts modellering
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195089 (URN)978-91-7729-187-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-11-22, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20161102

Available from: 2016-11-02 Created: 2016-11-01 Last updated: 2016-11-02Bibliographically approved

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Birgisson, BjörnKringos, Niki

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