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Analyzing Substation Automation System Reliability using Probabilistic Relational Models and Enterprise Architecture
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Modern society is unquestionably heavily reliant on supply of electricity. Hence, the power system is one of the important infrastructures for future growth. However, the power system of today was designed for a stable radial flow of electricity from large power plants to the customers and not for the type of changes it is presently being exposed to, like large scale integration of electric vehicles, wind power plants, residential photovoltaic systems etc. One aspect of power system control particular exposed to these changes is the design of power system control and protection functionality. Problems occur when the flow of electricity changes from a unidirectional radial flow to a bidirectional. Such an implication requires redesign of control and protection functionality as well as introduction of new information and communication technology (ICT). To make matters worse, the closer the interaction between the power system and the ICT systems the more complex the matter becomes from a reliability perspective. This problem is inherently cyber-physical, including everything from system software to power cables and transformers, rather than the traditional reliability concern of only focusing on power system components.

The contribution of this thesis is a framework for reliability analysis, utilizing system modeling concepts that supports the industrial engineering issues that follow with the imple-mentation of modern substation automation systems. The framework is based on a Bayesian probabilistic analysis engine represented by Probabilistic Relational Models (PRMs) in com-bination with an Enterprise Architecture (EA) modeling formalism. The gradual development of the framework is demonstrated through a number of application scenarios based on substation automation system configurations.

This thesis is a composite thesis consisting of seven papers. Paper 1 presents the framework combining EA, PRMs and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). Paper 2 adds primary substation equipment as part of the framework. Paper 3 presents a mapping between modeling entities from the EA framework ArchiMate and substation automation system configuration objects from the IEC 61850 standard. Paper 4 introduces object definitions and relations in coherence with EA modeling formalism suitable for the purpose of the analysis framework.

Paper 5 describes an extension of the analysis framework by adding logical operators to the probabilistic analysis engine. Paper 6 presents enhanced failure rates for software components by studying failure logs and an application of the framework to a utility substation automation system. Finally, Paper 7 describes the ability to utilize domain standards for coherent modeling of functions and their interrelations and an application of the framework utilizing software-tool support.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , xiii, 44 p.
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2014:021
Keyword [en]
Reliability analysis, substation automation, Enterprise Architecture, probabilistic analysis, Probabilistic Relational Models, Bayesian networks, software reliability, failure rates, fault tree analysis
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145006ISBN: 978-91-7595-131-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-145006DiVA: diva2:715620
Public defence
2014-05-19, Q2, Osquldas väg 10, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140505

Available from: 2014-05-05 Created: 2014-05-05 Last updated: 2014-05-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Probabilistic Availability Analysis of Control and Automation Systems for Active Distribution Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Probabilistic Availability Analysis of Control and Automation Systems for Active Distribution Networks
2010 (English)In: 2010 IEEE PES TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION CONFERENCE AND EXPOSITION: SMAR SOLUTIONS FOR A CHANGING WORLD, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The future smart electricity grids will exhibit tight integration between control and automation systems and primary power system equipment. Optimal and safe operation of the power system will be completely dependent on well functioning information and communication (ICT) systems. Considering this, it is essential that the control and automation systems do not constitute the weak link in ensuring reliable power supply to society. At the same time, studies of reliability when considering complex interdependencies between integrated ICT systems becomes increasingly difficult to perform due to the large amount of integrated entities with varying characteristics involved. To manage this challenge there is a need for structured modeling and analysis methods that accommodate this characteristics and interdependencies. In other fields, the analysis of large interconnected systems is done using models that capture the systems and its context as well as its components and interactions. This paper addresses this issue by combining enterprise architecture methods that utilize these modeling concepts, with fault tree analysis and probabilistic relational models. This novel approach enables a holistic overview thanks to the use of formalized models. It also allows use of rigorous analysis thanks to the adaptation of the models to enable Fault Tree Analysis. The paper is concluded with an example of application of the analysis method on a proposed smart grid function in a distribution network.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NEW YORK: IEEE, 2010
Keyword
System Analysis, Substation Automation, Availability, Fault Tree Analysis, Enterprise Architecture, Probabilistic Relational Models
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32136 (URN)10.1109/TDC.2010.5484364 (DOI)000287530800164 ()2-s2.0-77954804934 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-6547-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2010 IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition - Smar Solutions for a Changing World New Orleans, LA, APR 19-22, 2010
Note
QC 20110407Available from: 2011-04-07 Created: 2011-04-07 Last updated: 2014-05-05Bibliographically approved
2. Probabilistic Relational Models for assessment of reliability of active distribution management systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Probabilistic Relational Models for assessment of reliability of active distribution management systems
2010 (English)In: 2010 IEEE 11th International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems, PMAPS 2010, Singapore: IEEE , 2010, 454-459 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the use of Probabilistic Relational Models (PRM) for reliability analysis of control systems for active distribution grids. The approach is based on two key concepts; first, it addresses both the reliability of primary system components and the supporting secondary, ICT-based systems. Secondly, the use of PRMs enables representation of architecture of the ICT systems, including for instance redundancy of hardware and allocation of software functions to several hardware devices. This later aspect is important, since allocation of software across different hardware platforms is a feature enabled by for instance the IEC 61850 standard. The increasing number of software dependent systems for controlling and supervising the power grid enhances the risk of software-caused failures. Thus, for reliable operation it is of high importance to not only concern primary component, but also the software and hardware of the secondary systems controlling it. A variety of methods exist for reliability analysis of secondary systems, however few address the issue of failing software together with failing primary components. The paper presents the underlying theory for Probabilistic Relational Models, and presents the steps necessary to use the technique. The paper is concluded with an example of application of the approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Singapore: IEEE, 2010
Keyword
Active distribution grids, Bayesian networks, Component, Control and automation systems, Probabilistic relational models, Reliability analysis, Bayesian, Distribution grid, Control system analysis, Distributed parameter networks, Inference engines, Intelligent networks, Power generation, Probability distributions, Software reliability, Speech recognition, Quality assurance
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-49937 (URN)10.1109/PMAPS.2010.5528965 (DOI)2-s2.0-77956427067 (Scopus ID)978-142445723-6 (ISBN)
Conference
2010 IEEE 11th International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems, PMAPS 2010; Singapore; 14 June 2010 through 17 June 2010
Note
QC 20111201Available from: 2011-11-30 Created: 2011-11-30 Last updated: 2014-05-05Bibliographically approved
3. Mapping the Substation Configuration Language of IEC 61850 to ArchiMate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mapping the Substation Configuration Language of IEC 61850 to ArchiMate
Show others...
2010 (English)In: Proceedings - IEEE International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Workshop, EDOC, IEEE , 2010, 60-68 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a mapping between the Enterprise Architecture framework ArchiMate and the Substation Configuration Language (SCL) of IEC 61850. Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a discipline for managing an enterprise's information system portfolio in relation to the supported business. Metamodels, descriptive models on how to model and one of the core components of EA, can assist stakeholders in many ways, for example in decision-making. Moreover, the power industry is a domain with an augmented reliance on the support of information systems. IEC 61850 is a standard for the design of Substation Automation (SA) systems and provides a vendor independent framework for interoperability by defining communication networks and functions. The SCL is a descriptive language in IEC 61850 on the configuration of substation Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED) which describes the structure together with physical components and their relating functions. By using SCL, which models the architecture of SA systems, and mapping it to ArchiMate, stakeholders are assisted in understanding their SA system and its architecture. The mapping is intended to support the integration of SA systems applying IEC 61850 into the enterprise architecture. The mapping is demonstrated with an example applying the mapping to a SA configuration based on SCL.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2010
Keyword
ArchiMate, Enterprise architecture, IEC 61850, Substation Automation, Substation Configuration Language, Architecture, Automation, Decision making, Electric substations, Information systems, Interoperability, Mapping, Network architecture, Industry
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-49934 (URN)10.1109/EDOCW.2010.35 (DOI)2-s2.0-79951893020 (Scopus ID)978-076954164-8 (ISBN)
Conference
2010 14th IEEE International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference Workshops, EDOCW 2010; Vitoria; 25 October 2010 through 29 October 2010
Note

QC 20111201

Available from: 2011-11-30 Created: 2011-11-30 Last updated: 2016-05-02Bibliographically approved
4. An Architecture-Based Framework for Reliability Analysis of ICT for Power Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Architecture-Based Framework for Reliability Analysis of ICT for Power Systems
2011 (English)In: Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2011 IEEE, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an architecture based framework for reliability analysis of ICT systems for power system protection, monitoring and control. The analysis framework applies Probabilistic Relational Models (PRMs) - providing a combination of entity-relationship diagrams together with a probabilistic analysis engine of Bayesian networks. Moreover, the framework allows modeling and analysis of the relations between the ICT and the power system, including both physical and logical relations. Three architectural scenarios are presented onto which the analysis framework is applied. By using component failure rates gathered from various sources each scenario is analyzed based on the probability of successful operation. Calculations are preformed using Bayesian networks and contrasted with the application of Reliability Block Diagrams. The outcome verifies the successful use of PRMs for reliability analysis of ICT systems for power system protection, monitoring and control architecture.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-62798 (URN)
Conference
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting 2011, San Diego, CA, 24-29 July 2011
Note
QC 20120416Available from: 2012-01-20 Created: 2012-01-20 Last updated: 2014-05-05Bibliographically approved
5. An extended framework for reliability analysis of ICT for power systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An extended framework for reliability analysis of ICT for power systems
2011 (English)In: 2011 IEEE PES Trondheim PowerTech: The Power of Technology for a Sustainable Society, POWERTECH 2011, IEEE , 2011, 6019343- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an extended probabilistic framework for reliability analysis of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for power systems. The framework is based on Probabilistic Relational Models (PRMs) and includes the analysis of both primary equipment and the supporting ICT systems. The framework also separates between the functional structure and the physical infrastructure. To be able to analyze architectural properties, such as redundancy, the framework is extended with logical gates which are based on AND and OR logic. The gates serve and important purpose when integrating the framework into an analysis tool that supports PRMs. The problem without logical gates is the dynamic sizing of the conditional probability tables which depend on the number of parent nodes. This problem is solved by using aggregation functions. The application of the extended framework is demonstrated by applying to an example system-architecture with two types of redundant configurations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2011
Keyword
Bayesian networks, Logical Gates, Power Systems, Probabilistic Relational Models, Reliability, Substation Automation, Aggregation functions, Analysis tools, Architectural properties, Conditional probability tables, Functional structure, Information and Communication Technologies, Parent node, Primary equipments, Probabilistic framework, Redundant configuration, Power transmission, Reliability analysis, Standby power systems, Sustainable development, Information technology
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-49925 (URN)10.1109/PTC.2011.6019343 (DOI)2-s2.0-80053368557 (Scopus ID)978-142448419-5 (ISBN)
Conference
2011 IEEE PES Trondheim PowerTech: The Power of Technology for a Sustainable Society, POWERTECH 2011; Trondheim; 19 June 2011 through 23 June 2011
Note
QC 20111201Available from: 2011-11-30 Created: 2011-11-30 Last updated: 2014-05-05Bibliographically approved
6. Reliability analysis of substation automation system functions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reliability analysis of substation automation system functions
2012 (English)In: 2012 Proceedings - Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS), IEEE , 2012Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a case study applying a framework developed for the analysis of substation automation system function reliability. The analysis framework is based on Probabilistic Relational Models (PRMs) and includes the analysis of both primary equipment and the supporting information and communication (ICT) systems. Furthermore, the reliability analysis also considers the logical structure and its relation to the physical infrastructure. The system components that are composing the physical infrastructure are set with failure probabilities and depending of the logical structure the reliability of the studied functionality is evaluated. Software failures are also accounted for in the analysis. As part of the case study failure rates of modern digital control and protection relays were identified by studying failure logs from a Nordic power utility. According to the failure logs software counts for approximately 35% of causes of failures related to modern control and protection relays. The framework including failure probabilities is applied to a system for voltage control that consists of a voltage transformer with an on-load tap changer and a control system for controlling the tap. The result shows a 96% probability of successful operation over period of one year for the automatic voltage control. A concluding remark is that when analyzing substation automation system business functions it is important to reduce the modeling effort. The expressiveness of the presented modeling framework has shown somewhat cumbersome when modeling a single business function with a small number of components. Instead the analysis framework's full usefulness may expect to arise when a larger number of business functions are evaluated for a system with a high degree of dependency between the components in the physical infrastructure. The identification of accurate failure rates is also a limiting factor for the analysis and is something that is interesting for further work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Series
Reliability and Maintainability Symposium. Proceedings, ISSN 0149-144X
Keyword
Power Systems, Probabilistic Relational Models, Reliability Analysis, Substation Automation Systems
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-98158 (URN)10.1109/RAMS.2012.6175459 (DOI)000309184100040 ()2-s2.0-84860640110 (Scopus ID)978-145771849-6 (ISBN)
Conference
2012 Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, RAMS 2012; Reno, NV;23 January 2012 through 26 January 2012
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20120620

Available from: 2012-06-20 Created: 2012-06-20 Last updated: 2016-04-21Bibliographically approved
7. Reliability Analysis of Substation Automation Functions using PRMs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reliability Analysis of Substation Automation Functions using PRMs
2013 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, ISSN 1949-3053, E-ISSN 1949-3061, Vol. 4, no 1, 206-213 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the application of a framework for reliability analysis of substation automation (SA) system functions. The framework is based on probabilistic relational models which combines probabilistic reasoning offered by Bayesian networks together with architecture models in form of entity relationship diagrams. In the analysis, both the physical infrastructure, and the logical structure of the system, is regarded in terms of qualitative modeling and quantitative analysis. Moreover, the framework treats the aspect of failures caused by software. An example is detailed with the framework applied to an IEC 61850-based SA system. The logical structure, including functions and their relations, is modeled in accordance with Pieces of Information for COMmunication (PICOM) defined in the IEC 61850 standard. By applying PICOMs as frame of reference when modeling functions the model instantiation becomes more standardized compared to subjectively defining functions. A quantitative reliability analysis is performed on a function for tipping a circuit breaker in case of mismatch between currents. The result is presented both in terms of a qualitative architecture model and a quantitative result showing the probability of successful operation during a period of one year.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2013
Keyword
IEC 61850, PICOM, probabilistic relational models, reliability analysis, substation automation systems
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105195 (URN)10.1109/TSG.2012.2225452 (DOI)000325485600020 ()2-s2.0-84874964237 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Standupekc2
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20130318

Available from: 2013-03-18 Created: 2012-11-19 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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