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The application of environmental requirements in procurement of road maintenance in Sweden
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The Swedish Road Administration (SRA) is responsible for maintenance of the state-run roads in Sweden. The SRA also has an overarching responsibility for the state of the environment in the road transport sector. The overall aim of this thesis is to examine the implementation of environmental requirements in SRA road maintenance contracts and to develop an improved model for the implementation of environmental requirements, making it easier for the SRA to establish an optimal contracting strategy for routine road maintenance. Using several qualitative methodologies, the thesis is mainly based on a content analysis of 18 tender documents, two case studies consisting of five cases and a questionnaire. The study shows that the SRA have stipulated environmental requirements in procurements of routine road maintenance since 1997. The formulation of the environmental requirements was initially carried out at the Regional Road Management Directorates. However, in the case of trucks and construction vehicles relevant organisations were given the opportunity to actively participate in the development of environmental requirements. The contractors in the study fulfil about three-quarters of the environmental requirements in the contracts. The main reasons for not complying with the environmental requirements are: i) absence of consultation with municipalities and competent authorities, and ii) inadequate communication of environmental requirements to subcontractors. The benefit to the environment of laying down environmental requirements for road maintenance is difficult to assess, due to unclear environmental requirements and the fact that the SRA does not systematically follow up the environmental requirements. The findings of the research indicate that the SRA have made a serious effort to integrate environmental aspects in their maintenance contracts through the use of environmental requirements. However, the SRA need to adopt a more systematic approach towards road maintenance contracts in order to make green procurement an effective tool for environmental adaptation of road maintenance. The thesis proposes an improved process for development, implementation and follow-up of environmental requirements. The proposed process can be summarised in five criteria that need to be fulfilled in order to achieve an environmentally efficient application of environmental requirements: i) the environmental requirements have to be based on legislation, environmental quality objectives, identified environmental problems and/or research, ii) environmental indicators and baselines have to be established in order to facilitate follow-up of compliance with the requirements, iii) the environmental requirements have to be stated clearly in order to limit misinterpretations and to facilitate follow-up, iv) the contractors have to develop working processes, routines and training based on the environmental requirements, v) routines for following-up compliance with the requirements and the environmental effectiveness need to be developed, and there has to be a feedback of the results. Furthermore, the purchasing function needs to be integrated with the implementation of the contracts. Although, having faced several problems during the introduction of environmental requirements, the SRA have managed to meet the main arguments that are used for justification of green procurement. However, if slightly changed, the process of green procurement has the potential of becoming an important tool in the work for enhancing the environmental performance of the SRA.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2005. , xii, 79 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1016
Keyword [en]
Environmental technology, green procurement, road maintenance, environmental management, environmental requirement, trucks, vehicles
Keyword [sv]
Miljöteknik
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133ISBN: 91-7283-963-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-133DiVA: diva2:7160
Public defence
2005-02-25, Sal E1, Lindstedtsvägen 3, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101012Available from: 2005-02-20 Created: 2005-02-20 Last updated: 2010-10-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Environmental requirements in procurement of road maintenance in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental requirements in procurement of road maintenance in Sweden
2005 (English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Keyword
Green procurement, environmental requirements, road maintenance
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4942 (URN)
Note
QS 2010 QS 20120319Available from: 2005-02-20 Created: 2005-02-20 Last updated: 2012-03-19Bibliographically approved
2. The application of environmental requirements in Swedish road maintenance contracts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The application of environmental requirements in Swedish road maintenance contracts
2006 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 14, no 2, 163-171 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports two studies of the implementation of environmental requirements in Swedish road maintenance contracts. It aims to examine the fulfillment and follow-up of the requirements, the client intentions behind the requirements, and factors influencing the contractors' environmental performance. The study shows that a serious effort to integrate environmental aspects into the contracts has been made. However, the application of the requirements is hampered by deficient information transfer to key actors and a lack of systematic follow-up of the requirements. In order to make green procurement effective, simpler and clearer requirements and effective follow-up routines are needed.

Keyword
Environmental requirements, Green procurement, Road maintenance
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4943 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2004.11.004 (DOI)000234908100006 ()2-s2.0-28244434085 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101001. Uppdaterad från In press till Published (20101001).Available from: 2005-02-20 Created: 2005-02-20 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. The introduction of environmental requirements for trucks and construction vehicles used in road maintenance contracts in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The introduction of environmental requirements for trucks and construction vehicles used in road maintenance contracts in Sweden
2005 (English)In: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, ISSN 1535-3958, E-ISSN 1535-3966, Vol. 12, no 2, 62-72 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines the development and implementation of environmental requirements for trucks and construction vehicles in Swedish road maintenance contracts. The process in which the road administration involved relevant organizations in the development of a model for emission-based payment for the vehicles was analysed in a participatory study. Intentions behind the requirements were investigated using interviews and questionnaires. The results point to the importance of actively involving, informing and training all relevant parties. Transparency towards sub-contractors and the public is needed to justify the requirements. The payment model, based on environmental performance, is also suggested for use in other types of requirement in road maintenance contracts. To make green procurement an effective policy instrument, the model needs further development, e.g. systematic information, training of clients and contractors, and follow-up of the requirements.

Keyword
Environmental requirements, Green procurement, Road maintenance, Trucks, Vehicles
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4944 (URN)10.1002/csr.72 (DOI)2-s2.0-20444477195 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101012. Uppdaterad från in press till published (20101012).Available from: 2005-02-20 Created: 2005-02-20 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
4. Suggestions for process improvement for the application of environmental requirements in Swedish road maintenance contracts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suggestions for process improvement for the application of environmental requirements in Swedish road maintenance contracts
2005 (English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Keyword
Environmental requirement, green procurement, environmental management, road maintenance
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4945 (URN)
Note
QS 2010 QS 20120319Available from: 2005-02-20 Created: 2005-02-20 Last updated: 2012-03-19Bibliographically approved

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