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Mechanistic-Empirical Modelling of Flexible Pavement Performance: Verifications Using APT Measurements
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mechanistic-Empirical  (M-E)  pavement  design  procedures  are  composed  of  a  reliable  response model to estimate the state of stress in the pavement and distress models in order to predict the different types of pavement distresses due to the prevailing traffic and environmental conditions. One of the main objectives of this study was to develop a response model based on multilayer elastic  theory   (MLET)  with  improved  computational  performance  by   optimizing  the   time consuming parts of the MLET processes. A comprehensive comparison of the developed program with  two  widely  used  programs  demonstrated  excellent  agreement  and  improved  computational performance.  Moreover,  the  program  was  extended  to  incorporate  the  viscoelastic  behaviour  of bituminous materials through elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle. A procedure based on collocation of linear viscoelastic (LVE) solutions at selected key time durations was also proposed that improved the computational performance for LVE analysis of stationary and moving loads. A comparison  of  the  LVE  responses  with  measurements  from  accelerated  pavement  testing  (APT) revealed a good agreement. Furthermore the developed response model was employed to evaluate permanent deformation models  for  bound  and  unbound  granular  materials  (UGMs)  using  full  scale  APTs.  The  M-E Pavement  Design  Guide  (MEPDG)  model  for  UGMs  and  two  relatively  new  models  were evaluated  to  model  the  permanent  deformation  in  UGMs.  Moreover,  for  bound  materials,  the simplified  form  of  the  MEPDG  model  for  bituminous  bound  layers  was  also  evaluated.  The measured  and  predicted  permanent  deformations  were  in  general  in  good  agreement,  with  only small discrepancies between the models. Finally, as heavy traffic loading is one of the main factors affecting the performance of flexible pavement, three types of characterizations for heavy traffic axle load spectrum for M-E analysis and design of pavement structures were evaluated. The study recommended an improved approach that enhanced the accuracy and computational performance. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , x, 60 p.
Series
TRITA-TSC-PHD, 14:003
Keyword [en]
Flexible Pavement; Pavement Performance Models; Multilayer Elastic Theory; Linear Viscoelasticity; Rutting; Accelerated Pavement Testing; Heavy Vehicle Simulator
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Transport Science; Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145136ISBN: 978-91-87353-39-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-145136DiVA: diva2:716692
Public defence
2014-05-23, Q2, Osquldas väg 10, KTH, Stockholm, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140512

Available from: 2014-05-12 Created: 2014-05-12 Last updated: 2014-05-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Fast layered elastic response program for the analysis of flexible pavement structures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast layered elastic response program for the analysis of flexible pavement structures
2013 (English)In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 14, no 1, 196-210 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One of the key components in analysing pavement structural behaviour is the response model which is used to estimate the stresses, strains and displacements of the pavement structure subjected to the existing traffic, taking into account the material properties and prevailing environmental conditions. Multilayer elastic theory (MLET) is often preferred over other methods such as the finite element method, due to its computational performance for repeated applications. A new elastic response analysis program has been developed based on the Burmister MLET theory to calculate the response of flexible pavement structures. In the development of the program, the time-consuming part of MLET processes was optimised. To improve the convergence and accuracy of responses in the vicinity of the surface of the top layer, an approach based on Richardson's extrapolation was employed. Moreover, an iterative approach to model stress dependency of unbound granular materials was incorporated. A comprehensive comparison of the program with two frequently used programs demonstrated an excellent agreement and improved performance.

Keyword
layered elastic theory, responses of pavements, elastic half-space, Richardson's extrapolation, numerical integration
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-119729 (URN)10.1080/14680629.2012.757558 (DOI)000315352600012 ()2-s2.0-84878261289 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20130325

Available from: 2013-03-25 Created: 2013-03-21 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Evaluation of permanent deformation models for unbound granular materials using accelerated pavement tests
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of permanent deformation models for unbound granular materials using accelerated pavement tests
2013 (English)In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 14, no 1, 178-195 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mechanistic-empirical (M-E) pavement design methods have become the focus of modern pavement design procedure. One of the main distresses that M-E design methods attempt to control is permanent deformation (rutting). The objective of this paper is to evaluate three M-E permanent deformation models for unbound granular materials, one from the US M-E pavement design guide and two other relatively new models. Two series of heavy vehicle simulator (HVS) tests with three different types of base material were used for this purpose. The permanent deformation, wheel loading, pavement temperature, and other material properties were continuously controlled during the HVS tests. Asphalt concrete layers were considered as linear elastic where stress-dependent behaviour of unbound materials was considered when computing responses for the M-E permanent deformation models with a nonlinear elastic response model. Traffic wandering was also accounted for in modelling the traffic by assuming it was normally distributed and a time-hardening approach was applied to add together the permanent deformation contributions from different stress levels. The measured and predicted permanent deformations are in general in good agreement with only small discrepancies between the models. Model parameters were also estimated for three different types of material.

Keyword
rutting, unbound granular materials, stress dependency, traffic wandering, mechanistic empirical methods, response model, permanent deformation models
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-119728 (URN)10.1080/14680629.2012.755936 (DOI)000315352600011 ()2-s2.0-84878253785 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20130325

Available from: 2013-03-25 Created: 2013-03-21 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Modeling of flexible pavement structure behavior - Comparisons with Heavy Vehicle Simulator measurements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling of flexible pavement structure behavior - Comparisons with Heavy Vehicle Simulator measurements
2012 (English)In: Advances in Pavement Design Through Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Accelerated Pavement Testing, 2012, 493-503 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A response model to be employed in a mechanistic-empirical pavement performance prediction model based on multilayer elastic theory has been developed.An iterative approach using a method of successive over-relaxation of a stress dependency model is used to account for the nonlinear behavior of unbound materials. Asphalt and subgrade materials are assumed to be linear elastic. The response model was verified against two series of Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) response measurements made under a variety of wheel load configurations and at different pavement temperatures.A comparison with FallingWeight Deflectometer (FWD) data was also carried out. The model was subsequently used to predict permanent deformation from the HVS testing using simplework hardening models.Atime hardening approach has been adopted to combine permanent deformation contributions from stress levels of different magnitude.The response model outputs and the predicted permanent deformations were generally in good agreement with the measurements.

Keyword
Deflectometers, Dependency model, Flexible pavement structure, Heavy vehicle simulators, Iterative approach, Linear elastic, Multi-layer elastic theory, Nonlinear behavior, Pavement performance, Permanent deformations, Response measurement, Response model, Stress levels, Subgrade materials, Successive over relaxation, Unbound materials, Wheel loads
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145139 (URN)2-s2.0-84866890937 (Scopus ID)978-041562138-0 (ISBN)
Conference
4th International Conference on Accelerated Pavement Testing, APT 2012; Davis, CA; United States; 19 September 2012 through 21 September 2012
Note

QC 20140512

Available from: 2014-05-12 Created: 2014-05-12 Last updated: 2014-09-19Bibliographically approved
4. Characterization of heavy traffic axle load spectra for mechanistic-empirical pavement design applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of heavy traffic axle load spectra for mechanistic-empirical pavement design applications
(English)In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268XArticle in journal (Refereed) Accepted
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145140 (URN)
Note

QS 2014

Available from: 2014-05-12 Created: 2014-05-12 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
5. Viscoelastic modelling of pavement structure behaviour in a full scale accelerated pavement test
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Viscoelastic modelling of pavement structure behaviour in a full scale accelerated pavement test
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145141 (URN)
Note

QS 2014

Available from: 2014-05-12 Created: 2014-05-12 Last updated: 2014-05-12Bibliographically approved
6. Evaluation of a permanent deformation model for asphalt concrete mixtures using extra-large wheel tracking and heavy vehicle simulator tests
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of a permanent deformation model for asphalt concrete mixtures using extra-large wheel tracking and heavy vehicle simulator tests
2015 (English)In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 16, no 1, 154-171 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper evaluates a mechanistic–empirical permanent strain model for asphalt concrete mixtures. The evaluation was carried out based on two different types of tests: an extra-large wheel-tracking (ELWT) test and a full-scale accelerated pavement test using a heavy vehicle simulator (HVS). Asphalt slabs from three different types of asphalt mixtures were prepared for the ELWT test and tested at several pavement temperatures and tyre inflation pressures. Lateral wandering was also incorporated. The measured permanent deformations in the asphalt slabs were thereafter modelled using the permanent strain model from the US Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide and model parameters were estimated for the three types of mixes. For validation, data from an HVS tested pavement structure consisting of the same asphalt mixtures as those tested using the ELWT were used. A set of calibration factors for the three mixtures were therefore obtained between the two tests. In all cases, the calibration factors were within ±20% from unity. Differences in geometry, scale, wheel loading configuration as well as the speed of loading between the two test devices could be the possible reasons for the differences in observed calibration factors.

Keyword
asphalt concrete, heavy vehicle simulator, permanent deformation, traffic wandering, wheel-tracking test
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145144 (URN)10.1080/14680629.2014.987311 (DOI)000349451300010 ()2-s2.0-84922800575 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150310. Updated from manuscript to article in journal.

Available from: 2014-05-12 Created: 2014-05-12 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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